Description of Piscicapillaria bursata sp. nov. (Capillariidae) and Redescription of Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 (Cystidicolidae), Two Nematode Parasites of Hammerhead Sharks (Sphyrna spp.) off Australia
Data on helminth parasites in hammerhead sharks are scarce and, therefore, new examinations of these hosts are needed to recognize the species composition of their parasites, including nematodes.
Helminthological examinations of hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith et Smith) (209 specimens) and Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell) (57 specimens) (Sphyrnidae, Carcharhiniformes), from off the northern coast of Australia revealed one new and one insufficiently known species of intestinal nematode parasites. These were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy.
Both nematode species are described. Piscicapillaria bursata sp. nov. (Capillariidae) from S. mokarran (type host) and S. lewini differs from its congeners mainly in the spicule length (330 µm), body length of gravid females 12.80–21.26 mm and in possessing a subterminal female anus. The specimens of Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 (Cystidicolidae) (type species of Parascarophis Campana-Rouget, 1955) collected from S. lewini made it possible to redescribe the female and, for the first time, to describe the male; the same species was also found in S. mokarran. Amended diagnosis of Parascarophis is provided. Parascarophis is mainly characterized by the presence of lateral alae, a unique feature within the Cystidicolidae, and by the cephalic structures (presence of a cuticular hood and a pair of anterolateral plate-like structures in the mouth).
In addition to the discovery of a new nematode species, Pi. bursata sp. nov., the finding of Pa. sphyrnae in Australian waters represents a new geographical record of this parasite outside the Atlantic Ocean. The species of Parascarophis previously described from teleosts, P. bharatii Agrawal, 1965, P. oteroi Arya, 1992 and P. mulloidi Imam, Tawfik et Abdel Hady, 1982, are designated as species inquirendae and incertae sedis. The finding of P. sphyrnae in Australian waters represents a new geographical record of this parasite outside the Atlantic Ocean. Pa. sphyrnae had not been reported previously from beyond the Atlantic Ocean.
KeywordsParasitic nematode Trichinelloidea Habronematoidea Sphyrnidae Australian waters
We thank the various commercial fishers in Qld and the NT as well as the NSW Department of Primary Industries for the collection of shark specimens. Additionally, the authors are indebted to Matt Broadhurst and Sean Blake (NSW DPI), Cassy Rigby, Brooke D’ Alberto and the many student helpers (James Cook University), and Grant Johnson (NT Department of Primary Industries and Resources) for their assistance in the processing of the shark specimens. Funding for the various projects that supplied the sharks presented in this paper came from the NT DPIR and the National Environmental Science Program Marine Biodiversity Hub. Thanks are also due to the Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre CAS, institution supported by the MEYS CR (LM2015062 Czech-BioImaging) for their support with obtaining scientific data presented in this paper, and to Blanka Škoríková of the same Institute for help with illustrations. Prof. Amal A. M. Eid, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagazig, Zagazig, Egypt kindly provided a hardly accessible paper and Prof. Jean-Lou Justine translated some necessary French texts into English.
This study was partly supported by the institutional support of the Institute of Parasitology, BC AS CR, 585110/9500).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable institutional, national and international guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. NT sharks: Northern Territory Fisheries Special Permit S17/2531; CDU Animal Ethics A13014; Qld sharks: Queensland General Fisheries Permit 187250; JCU Animal Ethics A2310; NSW sharks: approval to deploy the gill-nets was granted under Sect. 158 of the Australian Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, from the application of Sects. 18, 18A, 20, 20A, 23 and 24A of Part 3 and Parts 7 to 9 of Chapter 4 of the Act, by the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment and Energy.
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