Molecular Assessment of Anaplasma marginale in Bovine and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Tick of Endemic Tribal Belt of Coastal South Gujarat, India
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Background and methods
This study described the detection, prevalence and phylogeny of Anaplasma marginale in the bovine (cattle and buffaloes) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick belonged to the tribal area of coastal South Gujarat, India, by amplifying 576 bp of major surface protein (msp) 5 gene using custom designed primers in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The PCR detection limit was up to 20 parasites/µl of blood in sensitivity experiment, and observed 100% specificity against Trypanosoma evansi, Babesia bigemina and Theileria annulata. Prevalence rate of the A. marginale in the bovine (n = 211)) was 18.48% and 6.64% (p < 0.05) as per the PCR and Giemsa stained blood smear, respectively. Febrile animals (35%) observed significantly (p < 0.05) higher incidence rate than the non-febrile (14.62%). The amplified msp5 had single cut site for the EcoR1 enzyme, upon digestion yielded two fragments of 365 and 211 bp on 1.0% agarose gel. The current sequence (KC811329) showed 100% homology and 1064 total score with the published nucleotide sequences of msp5 of A. marginale in the NCBI-BLAST study. Monophyletic relationship was observed with high bootstrap proportion (> 76% in Neighbor-Joining/ Maximum Likelihood) between the current and published nucleotide sequences in the phylogeny. Twenty out of 39 A. marginale infected bovine recorded R. (B.) microplus on their body surface, out of which 18 had detected the infection. The rickettsia was in 55%, 65% and 25% of anterior half, posterior half and egg of tick, respectively.
The test detected A. marginale in a carrier, pre-symptomatic and symptomatic vertebrate hosts (cattle and buffalo) and different body parts of the starved R. (B.) microplus including its egg. The current genotype could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine anaplasmosis in the targeted areas.
KeywordsMolecular assessment Anaplasma marginale Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bovine
We are thankful to the Vice-chancellor, Director of Research and Principal, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari for providing necessary facilities and fund to complete the research work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors had declared that they have no competing interests.
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