Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 162–170 | Cite as

Investigation of Dientamoeba fragilis Prevalence and Evaluation of Sociodemographic and Clinical Features in Patients with Gastrointestinal Symptoms

  • Mehmet AykurEmail author
  • Cansu Calıskan Kurt
  • Derya Dirim Erdogan
  • Cigir Biray Avcı
  • Rukiye Vardar
  • Sohret Aydemir
  • Nogay Girginkardeşler
  • Cumhur Gündüz
  • Hande Dagci
Original Paper



Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan parasite of the human gastrointestinal tract and still controversial in association with gastrointestinal symptoms.


We present cross-sectional study of the prevalence of D. fragilis, and sociodemographic and clinical features in the patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.


A total of 490 fecal specimens were collected from outpatients with gastrointestinal symptoms in the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University and Celal Bayar University, Turkey. Fecal specimens were examined with microscopy and inoculated in Robinson medium. D. fragilis-positive samples were examined for the presence of other intestinal parasites using enzyme immunoassay. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on all samples.


Of the 490 stool specimens examined by real-time PCR, 59 patients were positive for D. fragilis infection with prevalence rate of 12.04%. Forty-four of positive patients (74.5%) were found to be infected with only D. fragilis, while 23.7% were co-infected with Blastocystis and 1.7% were co-infected with Rotavirus. No statistically significant difference was found in all the examined patients in terms of D. fragilis positivity for all sociodemographic parameters. Loose stool consistency was associated with the presence of D. fragilis, with 18.3% (P = 0.001). When the clinical symptoms of all the patients participating in this study were examined, diarrhea was statistically more significant in patients with the presence of D. fragilis (16.3%; P = 0.001). The rate of diarrhea in D. fragilis-positive patients (84.09%; P = 0.0005) was higher than that of D. fragilis-negative patients and it was statistically significant.


This study is important for assessing the prevalence of D. fragilis and its association with other factors in symptomatic patients in a large sample group in Turkey, as well as investigating the relationship of identified symptoms with the D. fragilis pathogenicity. It is suggested that D. fragilis in this case is not a commensal parasite but a pathogenic parasite and that the most common clinical symptom is diarrhea.


Dientamoeba fragilis Prevalence Clinical symptoms Sociodemographic RT-PCR 



We thank all the patients who participated in the study, also we are grateful to Christen Rune Stensvold in Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark, for D. fragilis-positive control DNA. This study was supported by the grant given by the Scientific Research Projects Branch Directorate of Ege University, Turkey (Grant no.: 13-TIP-092).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by Dokuz Eylül University Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Protocol no.: 2013/16-02).


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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehmet Aykur
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
    Email author
  • Cansu Calıskan Kurt
    • 3
  • Derya Dirim Erdogan
    • 1
  • Cigir Biray Avcı
    • 3
  • Rukiye Vardar
    • 4
  • Sohret Aydemir
    • 5
  • Nogay Girginkardeşler
    • 6
  • Cumhur Gündüz
    • 7
  • Hande Dagci
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ParasitologyEge University, Faculty of MedicineIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of ParasitologyGaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of MedicineTokatTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Medical BiologyEge University, Faculty of MedicineIzmirTurkey
  4. 4.Department of GastroenterologyEge University, Faculty of MedicineIzmirTurkey
  5. 5.Department of MicrobiologyEge University, Faculty of MedicineIzmirTurkey
  6. 6.Department of ParasitologyCelal Bayar University, Faculty of MedicineManisaTurkey
  7. 7.Department of ParasitologyEge University Medical SchoolBornovaTurkey

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