Simultaneous Occurrence of Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Urban Foci in Bratislava, Slovakia

Abstract

Background

Questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in two urban parks (Železná studienka and Horský park) of the capital city of Slovakia, Bratislava, during two consecutive years in 2011 and 2012. A total of 932 ticks were analyzed for the presence of tick-borne agents: B. miyamotoi, B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica.

Results

PCR analysis confirmed the presence of all pathogens at both localities. The overall infection prevalence of B. miyamotoi, B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica was 0.75, 13.2, 5.6 and 8.9%, respectively. B. burgdorferi s.l. positive samples were represented by six genospecies. The most frequent one was B. afzelii followed by B. garinii and B. valaisiana.

Conclusion

Our study confirms the presence of I. ricinus ticks and at least nine tick-borne bacterial agents in city forest parks, which are used for recreational purposes. Ordination analysis revealed significant differences in the composition of pathogens with respect to study site location, time of season and ambient temperature, despite the fact that both sites are located relatively close to one another within the city.

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Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported from the Scientific Grant Agency of Ministry of Education and Slovak Academy of Sciences—mainly by the project VEGA Nos. 2/0119/17 (70%) and partially by VEGA 2/0068/17 and the Slovak Research and Development Agency under contract No. APVV-14-0274, No. APVV-16-0518 and No. APVV-14-0556.

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Vaculová, T., Derdáková, M., Špitalská, E. et al. Simultaneous Occurrence of Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Urban Foci in Bratislava, Slovakia. Acta Parasit. 64, 19–30 (2019). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-018-00004-w

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Keywords

  • Ixodes ricinus
  • Borrelia miyamotoi
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  • Rickettsia helvetica
  • Urban foci