Advertisement

Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 193–196 | Cite as

High occurrence of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum and Giardia duodenalis genotype E in sheep from Brazil

  • Flávio Medeiros Paz e Silva
  • Raimundo Souza Lopes
  • Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
  • Alessandro Francisco Talamini Amarante
  • João Pessoa AraujoJr
Research Note

Abstract

In this paper we report the occurrence of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium (C. ubiquitum and C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1) and the host-specific Giardia duodenalis genotype E in a sheep farm from Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 100 animals and screened for the presence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis of selected samples was used to confirm the species and to characterize the isolates. Of 100 specimens, 34 were positive for Giardia (34%) and 25 were positive for Cryptosporidium (25%). The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was higher in lambs than in ewes. Co-infection was observed in 14% of animals. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to genotype E. The genetic characterization performed in 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples revealed the presence of zoonotic C. ubiquitum and C. parvum in 76% (19/25) and 12% (3/25) of infected animals, respectively. The presence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium subtypes in lambs was of epidemiological and public health relevance.

Keywords

Cryptosporidium Giardia genotypes sheep zoonosis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aloisio F., Filippini G., Antenucci P., Lepri E., Pezzotti G., Cacciò S.M., Pozio E. 2006. Severe weight loss in lambs infected with Giardia duodenalis assemblage B. Veterinary Parasitology, 142, 154–158. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.06.023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amer S., Harfoush M., He H. 2010. Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtypes in dairy calves in Egypt. Veterinary Parasitology, 169, 382–386. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.01.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Elwin K., Chalmers R.M. 2008. Contemporary identification of previously reported novel Cryptosporidium isolates reveals Cryptosporidium bovis and the cervine genotype in sheep (Ovis aries). Parasitology Research, 102, 1103–1105. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-0935-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fayer R., Santín M. 2009. Cryptosporidium xiaoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in sheep (Ovis aries). Veterinary Parasitology, 164, 192–200. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.05.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fayer R., Santín M., Macarisin D. 2010. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n. sp. in animals and humans. Veterinary Parasitology, 172, 23–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.04.028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Feng Y., Ortega Y., He G., Das P., Xu M., Zhang X., Fayer R., Gatei W., Cama V., Xiao L. 2007. Wide geographic distribution of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines. Veterinary Parasitology, 144:1–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.10.001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fiuza V.R., Cosendey R.I., Frazão-Teixeira E., Santín M., Fayer R., de Oliveira F.C. 2011. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in Brazilian sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 175, 360–362. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.10.036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geurden T., Thomas P., Casaert S., Vercruysse J., Claerebout E. 2008. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in lambs and goat kids in Belgium. Veterinary Parasitology, 155, 142–145. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.05.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giangaspero A., Paoletti B, Lorio R, Traversa D. 2005. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis from sheep in central Italy. Parasitology Research, 96:32–37. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-005-1317-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gómez-Muñoz M.T., Navarro C., Garijo-Toledo M.M., Dea-Ayuela M.A., Fernández-Barredo S., Pérez-Gracia M.T., Domínguez-Márquez M.V., Borrás R. 2009. Occurrence and genotypes of Giardia isolated from lambs in Spain. Parasitology International, 58, 297–299. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2009.06.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Green R.E., Amarante A.F.T., Mascarini L.M. 2004. The seasonal distribuition of Cryptosporidium oocysts in sheep raised in the state of Sao Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 13, 125–127. DOI: 10.1590/S1984-29612010000400002.Google Scholar
  12. Meireles M.V. 2010. Cryptosporidium infection in Brazil: implications for veterinary medicine and public health. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 19, 197–204. DOI: 10.1590/S1984-29612010000400002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pangasa A., Jex A.R., Nolan M.J., Campbell B.E., Haydon S.R., Stevens M.A., Gasser R.B. 2010. Highly sensitive nonisotopic restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of nucleotide variability in the gp60 gene within Cryptosporidium species, genotypes and subgenotypes infective to humans, and its implications Electrophoresis, 31, 1637–1647. DOI: 10.1002/elps.200900706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Peng M.M., Wilson M.L., Holland R.E., Meshnick S.R., Lal A.A., Xiao L. 2003. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Michigan: implications for understanding the transmission dynamics. Parasitology Research, 90, 175–180. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-003-0834-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Read C.M., Monis P.T., Thompson R.C.A. 2004. Discrimination of all genotypes of Giardia duodenalis at the glutamate dehydrogenase locus using PCR-RFLP. Infection Genetics and Evolution, 4, 125–130. DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2004.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Robertson L.J., Gjerde B.K., Furuseth H.E. 2010. The zoonotic potential of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Norwegian sheep: a longitudinal investigation of 6 flocks of lambs. Veterinary Parasitology, 171, 140–145. DOI: 0.1016/j.vetpar.2010.03.014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rocha R.A., Bresciani K.D.S., Barros T.F.M., Fernandes L.H., Silva M.B., Amarante A.F.T. 2008. Sheep and cattle grazing alternately: Nematode parasitism and pasture decontamination. Small Ruminant Research, 75, 135–143. DOI: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2007.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ryan U.M., Bath C., Robertson I., Read C., Elliot A., Mcinnes L., Traub R., Besier B. 2005. Sheep may not be an important zoonotic reservoir for Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 71, 4992–4497. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.9.4992-4997.2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Santín M., Trout J.M., Fayer R. 2007. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in sheep in Maryland. Veterinary Parasitology, 146, 17–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.01.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Trotz-Williams L.A., Martin D., Gatei W., Cama V., Peregrine A.S., Martin S.W., Nydam D.V., Jamieson F., Xiao L. 2006. Genotype and subtype analyses of Cryptosporidium isolates from dairy calves and humans in Ontario. Parasitology Research, 99, 346–352. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-006-0157-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Xiao L., Singh A., Limor J., Graczyk T.K., Gradus S., Lal A. 2001. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium oocysts in samples of raw surface water and wastewater. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 67, 1097–1101. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.67.3.1097-1101.2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang Y., Feng Y., Cui B., Jian F., Ning C., Wang R., Zhang L., Xiao L. 2010. Cervine genotype is the major Cryptosporidium genotype in sheep in China. Parasitology Research, 106, 341–347. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1664-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yang R., Jacobson C., Gordon C., Ryan U. 2009. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in pre-weaned sheep in Australia. Veterinary Parasitology, 161, 19–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.12.021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Flávio Medeiros Paz e Silva
    • 1
    • 4
  • Raimundo Souza Lopes
    • 1
  • Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
    • 2
  • Alessandro Francisco Talamini Amarante
    • 3
  • João Pessoa AraujoJr
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Department of Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal ScienceUNESP — Univ Estadual PaulistaBotucatuBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde AnimalFMVA, UNESP — Univ Estadual PaulistaAraçatubaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Parasitology, Biosciences InstituteUNESP — Univ Estadual PaulistaBotucatuBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences InstituteUNESP — Univ Estadual PaulistaBotucatuBrazil

Personalised recommendations