Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 564–569 | Cite as

Genetic diversity in human malarial parasites of Khyber Agency Pakistan

  • Lubna Khatoon
  • Muhammad Ishtiaq Jan
  • Inam Ullah Khan
  • Farhat Ullah
  • Salman A. Malik
Original Paper


Malaria is wide spread in poor world and its burden has been assessed by the enumeration of malarial parasites in blood of patients. This study was designed to find a relationship between social structure, and spread of malaria in Khyber agency. The average parasite density was 2050 parasite/μl in Khyber Agency. Due to economic and social setup most of the people have habit of sleeping in open air thus playing role in high malaria prevalence and Plasmodium vivax remains the prevalent species. Genetic study performed on 110 Blood samples showed less genetic diversity for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Eight alleles were distinguished both for Pvmsp 3α and Pvmsp 3β in total of 20 and 39 amplified samples of P. vivax respectively. Out of 17 samples amplified for P. falciparum 11 showed genotype K1 and 10 for MAD at Pfmsp-1 while 14 alleles were identified for 3D7/1C and two for FC27 of corresponding families of Pfmsp-2 gene. This shows that Plasmodium parasites are not genetically diverse in Khyber agency.


Malaria human Khyber genetic diversity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aubouy A., Migot-Nabias F., Deleron P. 2003. Polymorphism in two merozoite surface proteins of P. falciparum isolates from Gabon. Malaria Journal, 2, 12. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-2-12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Babiker H.A., Lines J., Hill W.G., Walliker D. 1997. Population structure of P. falciparum in villages with different malaria endemicity in east Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 56, 141–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruce M.C., Donnelly C.A., Alpers M.P., Galinski M.R., Barnwell J.W., Walliker D., Day K.P. 2000. Cross-species interactions between malaria parasites in humans. Science, 287, 845–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Day K.P., Marsh K. 1991. Naturally acquired immunity to P. falciparum. Immunology Today, 12, 68–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghanchi N.K., Mårtensson A., Ursing J., Jafri S., Bereczky S., Hussain R., Beg M.A. 2010. Genetic diversity among P. falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with PCR genotyping of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2. Malaria Journal, 9, 1. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghulam M., Ahmed M.I., Rauf M.A., Lal M.N., Ali K.N. 2009. Malaria morbidity in sindh and the Plasmodium species distribution. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 25, 646–649. Accessed 25 Oct 2011.Google Scholar
  7. Khatoon L., Baliraine F.N., Bonizzoni M., Malik S.A., Yan G. 2009. Prevalence of antimalarial drug resistance mutations in P. vivax and P. falciparum from a malaria endemic area of Pakistan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 81, 525–528. DOI:81/3/525.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Khatoon L., Baliraine F.N., Bonizzoni M., Malik S.A., Yan G. 2010. Genetic structure of P. vivax and P. falciparum in the Bannu district of Pakistan. Malaria Journal, 9, 112. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-112.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Khatoon L., Khan I.U., Shah S.A., Jan M.I., Ullah F., Malik S.A. 2012. Genetic diversity of P. vivax and P. falciparum in Kohat District, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 16, 184–187. DOI: S1413-86702012000200014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Leslie T., Kaur H., Mohammed N., Kolaczinski K., Ord R.L., Rowland M. 2009. Epidemic of P. falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Antimalarial Drugs, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Disease, 15, 1753–1759. DOI: 10.3201/eid1511.090886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moorthy V.S., Hill A.V. 2002. Malaria vaccine. British Medical Bulletin, 62, 59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. O’maera W.P., Mckenzie F.E., Magilla A.J., Fornery J.R., Permpanich B., Lucas C., Gasser R.A., Wongsrichanalai C. 2006. Source of variability in determining malaria parasite density by microscopy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73, 593–598. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-118.Google Scholar
  13. Pryblski D., Khaliq A., Fox E., Sarwari A.R., Stricland G.T. 1999. Parasite density and malaria morbidity in the Pakistani Punjab. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 61, 791–80.Google Scholar
  14. Rogier C., Commenges D., Trape J.F. 1996. Evidence for an agedependent pyrogenic threshold of P. falciparum parasitemia in highly endemic populations. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 54, 613–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Singh B., Sung K.L., Matusop A., Radhakrishnan A., Shamsul S.S., Cox-Singh J., Balbir T.S., Albino B., Janet C.S., Georges S., Shukri A.M., Hasan A.R. 1999. A genus and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction malaria detection assay for epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 60, 687–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Snounou G., Zhu X., Siripoon N., Jarra W., Thaithong S., Brown K.N., Viriyakosol S. 1999. Biased distribution of msp1 and msp 2 allelic variants in P. falciparum populations in Thailand. Transactions Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93, 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Snow R.W., Guerra C.A., Noor A.M., Myint H.Y., Hay S.I. 2005. The global distribution of clinical episodes of P. falciparum malaria. Nature, 434, 214–217. DOI: 10.1038/nature03342.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Yang Z., Jun M., Yaming H., Xinyi L., Chaturong P., Somchai J., Gao Q.I., Rachanee J.S., Liwang C. 2006. Genetic structures of geographically distinct P. vivax populations assessed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the Merozoite Surface Protein 3β Gene. Acta Tropica, 100, 205–212. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2006.10.011.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Yasinzai M.I., Kakarsulemankhel J.K. 2008. Incidence of human malaria infection in desert area of Pakistan: District Kharan. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences, 4, 39–41.Google Scholar
  20. Zakeri S., Mehrizi A.A., Mamaghani S., Noorizadeh S., Snounou G., Djadid N.D. 2006a. Population structure analysis of P. vivax in areas of Iran with different malaria endemicity. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74, 394–400. DOI: 74/3/394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Zakeri S., Hesam B., Navid D.D. 2006b. Merozoite surface protein-3α is a reliable marker for population genetic analysis of P. vivax. Malaria Journal, 5, 53. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Zakeri S., Raeisi A., Afsharpad M., Kakar Q., Ghasemi F., Atta H., Zamani G., Memon MS., Salehi M., Djadid N.D. 2010. Molecular characterization of P. vivax clinical isolates in Pakistan and Iran using pvmsp-1, pvmsp-3α and pvcsp genes as molecular markers. Parasitology International, 59, 15–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2009.06.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lubna Khatoon
    • 1
  • Muhammad Ishtiaq Jan
    • 2
  • Inam Ullah Khan
    • 2
  • Farhat Ullah
    • 3
  • Salman A. Malik
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological SciencesQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Kohat University of Science and TechnologyKohatPakistan

Personalised recommendations