Molecular characterization of kudoid parasites (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from somatic muscles of Pacific bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna
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The public health importance of Kudoa infection in fish remains unclear. Recently in Japan a Kudoa species, K. septempunctata, was newly implicated as a causative agent of unidentified food poisoning related to the consumption of raw olive flounder. Other marine fishery products are also suspected as causative raw foods of unidentified food poisoning. For this study, we detected kudoid parasites from sliced raw muscle tissues of a young Pacific bluefin and an adult yellowfin tuna. No cyst or pseudocyst was evident in muscles macroscopically, but pseudocysts were detected in both samples histologically. One substitution (within 1100 bp overlap) and ten substitutions (within 753 bp overlap) were found respectively between the partial sequences of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates. Nucleotide sequence similarity searching of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates showed the highest identity with those of K. neothunni from tuna. Based on the spore morphology, the mode of parasitism, and the nucleotide sequence similarity, these isolates from a Pacific bluefin and a yellowfin tuna were identified as K. neothunni. Phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA sequence revealed that K. neothunni is classifiable into two genotypes: one from Pacific bluefin and the other from yellowfin tuna. Recently, an unidentified kudoid parasite morphologically and genetically similar K. neothunni were detected from stocked tuna samples in unidentified food poisoning cases in Japan. The possibility exists that K. neothunni, especially from the Pacific bluefin tuna, causes food poisoning, as does K. septempunctata.
KeywordsKudoa neothunni Pacific bluefin tuna yellowfin tuna phylogenetic analysis
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