Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 13–17 | Cite as

First detection and genotyping of human-associated microsporidia in wild waterfowl of Slovakia

  • B. Malčeková
  • A. Valenčáková
  • L. Molnár
  • A. Kočišová
Original Paper

Abstract

A total of 47 avian faecal samples of wild waterfowl (great cormorant — Phalacrocorax carbo, great crested grebe — Podiceps cristatus, white stork — Ciconia ciconia) trapped in the eastern Slovakia were screened for the presence of human pathogenic microsporidia by microscopy and real-time SYBR Green PCR method using species primers and sequenced. Microscopic analysis showed presence in 32 samples (29 cormorants, 3 dippers). Microsporidial DNA (Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I) was identified in 19 faeces samples (40.4%) namely cormorants in 17 out of 40, one dipper of 5 and a stork out of 2. The present work describes three new host species of the bird population in microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I which confirms the theory of low specificity of this species.

Keywords

Waterfowl SYBR Green PCR microscopic method Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype I 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bart A., Wentink-Bonnema E.M., Heddema E.R., Buijs J., van Gool T. 2008. Frequent occurrence of human-associated microsporidia in fecal droppings of urban pigeons in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 7056–7058. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01429-08.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Didier E.S., Stovall M.E., Green L.C., Brindley P.J., Sestak K., Didier P.J. 2004. Epidemiology of microsporidiosis: sources and modes of transmission. Veterinary Parasitology, 126, 145–166. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Didier E.S. 2005. Microsporidiosis: an emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals. Acta Tropica, 94, 61–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.01.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dowd S.E., Gerba C.P., Pepper I.L. 1998. Confirmation of the human-pathogenic microsporidia Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, and Vittaforma corneae in water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64, 3332–3335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gamboa-Dominquez A., De Anda J., Donis J., Ruiz-Maza F., Visvesvara G.S., Diliz H. 2003. Disseminated Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in a Mexican kidney transplant recipient. Transplantation, 11, 898–900. DOI: 10.1097/01.TP.0000064623.57821.22.Google Scholar
  6. Graczyk T.K., Sunderland D., Rule A.M., da Silva A.J., Moura I.N.S., Tamang L., Girouard A.S., Schwab K.J., Breysse P.N. 2007. Urban feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a source for air-and waterborne contamination with Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 4357–4358. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00202-07.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Graczyk T.K., Majewska A.C., Schwab K.J. 2008. The role of birds in dissemination of human waterborne enteropathogens. Trends in Parasitology, 24, 55–59. DOI: 10.1016/j.pt.2007.10.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Halanova M., Letkova V., Macak V., Stefkovic M., Halan M. 1999. The first finding of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cows in Slovakia. Veterinary Parasitology, 82, 167–171. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00008-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kasickova D., Sak B., Kvac M., Ditrich O. 2007. Detection of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a new host-cockateel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using molecular methods. Parasitology Research, 101, 1685–1688. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-007-0720-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kasickova D., Sak B., Kvac M., Ditrich O. 2009. Sources of potentially infectious human microsporidia: molecular characterization of microsporidia isolates from exotic birds in the Czech Republic, prevalence study and importance of birds in epidemiology of the human microsporidial infections. Veterinary Parasitology, 165, 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Katzwinkel-Wladarsch S., Lieb M., Helse W., Loscher T., Rinder H. 1996. Direct amplification and species determination of microsporidian DNA from stool specimens. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 1, 373–378. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3156.1996.d01-51.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kirschner A.K.T., Zechmeister T.C., Kavka G.G., Beiwl C., Herzig A., Mach R.L., Farnleitner A.H. 2004. Integral strategy for evaluation of fecal coliform indicator performance in bird-influenced saline inland waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 7396–7403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luptáková L., Petrovová E. 2011. The Occurrence of Microsporidial Infections and Toxoplasmosis in Slovak Women. Epidemiology, Microbiology, Immunology, 60, 156–160.Google Scholar
  14. Malcekova B., Halanova M., Sulinova Z., Molnar L., Ravaszova P., Adam J., Halan M., Valocky I., Baranovic M. 2010. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in humans and animals. Research in Veterinary Science, 89, 358–361. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.03.020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Malcekova B., Valencakova A., Luptakova L., Molnar L., Ravaszova P., Novotny F. 2011. First detection and genotyping of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a new host species, gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus). Parasitology Research, 108, 1479–1482. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-2202-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Notermans D.W., Peek R., de Jong M.D., Wentink-Bonnema E.M., Boom R., van Gool T. 2005. Detection and identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon species in stool and urine specimens by PCR and differential hybridization. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 43, 610–614. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.610-614.2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reetz J. 1994. Natural transmission of microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi) by way of the chicken egg. Tierarztl Prax, 22, 147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Rinder H. 2004. Transmission of microsporidia to humans: waterborne, food-borne, air-borne, zoonotic, or anthroponotic? Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 35, 54–57.Google Scholar
  19. Slodkowicz-Kowalska A., Graczyk T.K., Tamang L., Jedrzejewski S., Nowosad A., Zduniak P., Solarczyk P., Girouard A.S., Majewska A.C. 2006. Microsporidian species known to infect humans are present in aquatic birds: implications for transmission via water? Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 4540–4544. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02503-05.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sparfel J.M., Sarfati C., Liguory O., Caroff B., Dumoutier N., Gueglio B., Billaud E., Raffi F., Molina J.M., Miegeville M., Derouin F. 1997. Detection of microsporidia and identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in surface water by filtration followed by specific PCR. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 44, 78. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.1997.tb05792.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thurston-Enriquez J.A., Watt P., Dowd S.E., Enriquez R., Pepper I.L., Gerba C.P. 2002. Detection of protozoan parasites and microsporidia in irrigation waters used for crop production. Journal of Food Protection, 65, 378–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Valencakova A., Balent P., Ravaszova P., Horak A., Obornik M., Halanová M., Malcekova B., Novotny F., Goldova M. 2012. Mo- lecular identification and genotyping of Microsporidia in selected hosts. Parasitology Research, 110, 689–693. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2543-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vavra J., Dahbiová R., Hollister W.S., Canning E.U. 1993. Staining of microsporidian spores by optical brighteners with remarks on the use of brighteners for the diagnosis of AIDS associated human microsporidioses. Folia Parasitologica, 40, 267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Malčeková
    • 1
  • A. Valenčáková
    • 1
  • L. Molnár
    • 2
  • A. Kočišová
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biology and GeneticsUniversity of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  2. 2.Avian and Exotic ClinicUniversity of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  3. 3.Department of Infectious Disease and EpizootologyUniversity of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia

Personalised recommendations