Skip to main content

Sublimation-driven evolution of the local radius and the moment of inertia of a long-period comet

Abstract

In this paper we intend to analyze how the sublimation of ice from cometary nuclei affects changes of the moments of inertia. Our aim is to show general trends for different orientations of cometary nucleus’ rotation axis. Thus we apply numerical model of a hypothetical homogeneous and initially spherical nucleus composed of water ice and dust. As an example we present simulations for a model comet of the orbital elements and the nucleus size the same as determined for C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, a widely analyzed long-period comet. We calculated water production from the nucleus and changes of the shape (initially spherical) and of the moment of inertia versus time. Simulations are performed for the full range (0–90°) of inclinations I of the rotation axis. The second paramater related to the orientation of the rotation axis is the argument Φ (0–360°). The heat conductivity of the nucleus spans over the vast range, 0.04–4 W m−1 K1.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Biver, N., D. Bockelée-Morvan, P. Colom, J. Crovisier, B. Germain, E. Lellouch, J.K. Davies, W.R.F. Dent, R. Moreno, G. Paubert, J. Wink, D. Despois, D.C. Lis, D. Mehringer, D. Benford, M. Gardner, T.G. Phillips, M. Gunnarsson, H. Rickman, A. Winnberg, P. Bergman, L.E.B. Johansson, and H. Rauer (1999), Long-term evolution of the outgassing of comet Hale-Bopp from radio observations, Earth, Moon and Planets 78, 1-3, 5–11, DOI: 10.1023/A:1006229818484.

    Google Scholar 

  • Colom, P., E. Gérard, J. Crovisier, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, and H. Rauer (1999), Observations of the OH radical in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) with the Nançay radio telescope, Earth, Moon and Planets 78, 1-3, 37–43, DOI: 10.1023/A:1006206924786.

    Google Scholar 

  • Combi, M.R., A.A. Reinard, J.L. Bertaux, E. Quemerais, and T. Mäkinen (2000), SOHO/SWAN observations of the structure and evolution of the hydrogen Lyman-α coma of comet Hale-Bopp (1995 O1), Icarus 144, 1, 191–202, DOI: 10.1006/icar.1999.6335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crovisier, J., K. Leech, D. Bockelée-Morvan, E. Lellouch, T.Y. Brooke, M.S. Hanner, B. Altieri, H.U. Keller, and T. Lim (1999), The spectrum of comet Hale-Bopp as seen by ISO, ESA SP 427, 137–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dello Ruso, N., M.J. Mumma, M.A. DiSanti, K. Magee-Sauer, R. Novak, and T.W. Rettig (2000), Water production and release in comet C/1995 O1 Hale Bopp, Icarus 143, 2, 324–337, DOI: 10.1006/icar.1999.6268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delsemme, A.H., and D.C. Miller (1971), Physico-chemical phenomena in comets - III. The continuum of comet Burnham (1960 II), Planet. Space Sci. 19, 10, 1229–1257, DOI: 10.1016/0032-0633(71)90180-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dziak-Jankowska, B., J. Leliwa-Kopystyński, and M. Królikowska (2002), Modelling of shape changes of the nuclei of comets C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp and 46P/Wirtanen caused by water ice sublimation, Earth, Moon and Planets 90, 1-4, 35–44, DOI: 10.1023/A:1021504115927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Efroimsky, M., A. Lazarian, and V. Sidorenko (2002), Complex rotation with internal dissipation. Applications to cosmic-dust alignment and to wobbling comets and asteroids. In: Recent Research Developments in Astrophysics, Research Signpost, India, 64 pp. (invited review).

    Google Scholar 

  • Enzian, A., H. Cabot, and J. Klinger (1998), Simulation of the water and carbon monoxide production rates of comet Hale-Bopp using a quasi 3-D nucleus model, Planet. Space. Sci. 46, 8, 851–858, DOI: 10.1016/S0032-0633(98)00057-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Groussin, O., M.F. A’Hearn, J.-Y. Li, P.C. Thomas, J.M. Sunshine, C.M. Lisse, K.J. Meech, T.L. Farnham, L.M. Feaga, and W.A. Delamere (2007), Surface temperature of the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1, Icarus 187, 1, 16–25, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.08.030.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gutiérrez, P.J., R. Rodrigo, J.L. Ortiz, and B.J.R. Daviddson (2003), An investigation of errors in estimates of the cometary nuclei active area fractions, Astron. Astroph. 401, 2, 755–761, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gutiérrez, P.J., L. Jorda, N.H. Samarasinha, and P. Lamy (2005), Outgassing-induced effects in the rotational state of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the Rosetta mission, Planet. Space Sci. 53, 11, 1135–1145, DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2004.12.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hale, A., and T. Bopp (1995), International Astronomical Union Circular No. 6187.

  • Jorda, L., and P. Gutiérrez (2002), Rotational properties of cometary nuclei, Earth, Moon and Planets 89, 1-4, 135–160, DOI: 10.1023/A:1021598404115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jorda, L., K. Rembor, J. Lecacheux, P. Colom, F. Colas, E. Frappa, and L.M. Lara (1999), The rotational parameters of Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) from observations of the dust jets at Pic du Midi Observatory, Earth, Moon and Planets 77, 3, 167–180, DOI: 10.1023/A:1006234813574.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kömle, N.I., G. Kargl, K. Thiel, and K. Seiferlin (1996), Thermal properties of cometary ices and sublimation residua including organics, Planet. Space Sci. 44, 7, 675–689, DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2004.12.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Królikowska, M. (2004), Long-period comets with non-gravitational effects, Astron. Astrophys. 427, 3, 1117–1126, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20041339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kührt, E. (1999), H2O-activity of comet Hale-Bopp, Space Sci. Rev. 90, 1-2, 75–82, DOI: 10.1023/A:1005229526966.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kührt, E. (2002), From Hale-Bopp’s activity to properties of its nucleus, Earth, Moon and Planets 90, 1-4, 61–65, DOI: 10.1023/A:1021560200906.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kührt, E., and H.U. Keller (1994), The formation of cometary surface crusts, Icarus 109, 1, 121–132, DOI: 10.1006/icar.1994.1080.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Licandro, J., L.R. Bellot Rubio, R. Casas, A. Gómez, M.R. Kidger, N. Sabalisk, P. Santos-Sanz, M. Serra-Ricart, R. Torres-Chico, A. Oscoz, L. Jorda, and G. Denicolo (1999), The spin axis position of C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), Earth, Moon and Planets 77, 3, 199–206, DOI: 10.1023/A:1006291015391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marsden, B.G., and G.V. Williams (1997), Catalog of Cometary Orbits, 12th ed., Minor Planet Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morgenthaler, J.P., W.M. Harris, F. Scherb, Ch.M. Anderson, R.J. Oliversen, N.E. Doane, M.R. Combi, M.L. Marconi, and W.H. Smyth (2001), Large-aperture [O I] 6300 Å photometry of comet Hale-Bopp: implications for the photochemistry of OH, Astroph. J. 563, 451–461, DOI: 10.1086/323773

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura, T., S. Nakano, and Y. Hyakutake (1996), International Astronomical Union Circular No. 6299.

  • Panale, F.P., and J.R. Salvail (1984), An idealized short-period comet model: surface insolation, H2O flux, dust flux, and mantle evolution, Icarus 60, 3, 476–511, DOI: 10.1016/0019-1035(84)90157-X.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prialnik, D. (2002), Modeling the comet nucleus interior. Application to Comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, Earth, Moon and Planets 89, 1-4, 27–52, DOI: 10.1023/A:1021577915502.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodionov, A.V., J.-F. Crifo, K. Szegö, J. Lagerros, and M. Fulle (2002), An advanced physical model of cometary activity, Planet. Space Sci. 50, 10-11, 983–1024, DOI: 10.1016/S0032-0633(02)00047-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schleicher, D.G., S.M. Lederer, R.L. Millis, and T.L. Farnham (1997), Photometric behavior of Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) before perihelion, Science 275, 5308, 1913–1915, DOI: 10.1126/science.275.5308.1913.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Samarasinha, N.H. (2000), The coma morphology due to an extended active region and the implications for the spin state of comet Hale-Bopp, Astrophys. J. Lett. 529, L107–L110, DOI: 10.1086/312469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Samarasinha, N.H., B.E.A. Mueller, M.J.S. Belton, and L. Jorda (2004), Rotation of cometary nuclei. In: M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, and H.A. Weaver (eds.), Comets II, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 281–299.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sekanina, Z. (1981), Rotation and precession of cometary nuclei, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9, 113–145, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ea.09.050181.000553).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skorov, Yu.V., and H. Rickman (1999), Gas flow and dust acceleration in a cometary Knudsen layer, Planet. Space. Sci. 47, 8-9, 935–949, DOI: 10.1016/S0032-0633(99)00008-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weaver, H.A., and P.L. Lamy (1999), Estimating the size of Hale-Bopp’s nucleus, Earth, Moon and Planets 79, 1-3, 17–33, DOI: 10.1023/A:1006220930046.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weaver, H.A., P.D. Feldman, M.F. A’Hearn, C. Arpigny, J.C. Brandt, and S.A. Stern (1999), Post-perihelion HST observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1), Icarus 141, 1, 1–12, DOI: 10.1006/icar.1999.6159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whipple, F.L. (1950), Post-perihelion HST observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1), Astrophys. J. 111, 375–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Woods, T.N., P.D. Feldman, and G.J. Rottman (2000), Ultraviolet observations of Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) by the UARS SOLSTICE, Icarus 144, 1, 182–186, DOI: 10.1006/icar.1999.6262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Beata Dziak-Jankowska.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dziak-Jankowska, B., Leliwa-Kopystyński, J. & Kossacki, K.J. Sublimation-driven evolution of the local radius and the moment of inertia of a long-period comet. Acta Geophys. 57, 509–535 (2009). https://doi.org/10.2478/s11600-009-0005-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11600-009-0005-x

Key words

  • comet C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp
  • sublimation
  • long period comet