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Central European Journal of Medicine

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 694–703 | Cite as

Local and systemic immune responses in gingivitis and periodontitis

  • Gediminas ZekonisEmail author
  • Ingrida Barzdziukaite
  • Jonas Zekonis
  • Renata Sadzeviciene
  • Sandrita Simonyte
  • Juozas Zilinskas
Research Article
  • 137 Downloads

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gingivitis and periodontitis on white blood cell (WBC) count and differential WBC count in gingival microvascular blood (GMB) and in venous blood (VB).

Material and methods

102 systemically healthy adult patients — 32 with gingivitis, 36 with periodontitis, and 34 controls — underwent evaluation of the total WBC count, and the count of different types of WBC in VB and GMB.

Results

Inflammation of periodontal tissues was persistently associated with a systemic (in VB) elevation of the WBC count (p<0.05 in gingivitis and p<0.01 in periodontitis), compared to that in control group subjects, and with elevated systemic and local lymphocyte counts (p<0.05), compared to the analogous cell count in the control group. Patients with periodontitis were found to have reduced polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) counts in GMB, compared to patients with gingivitis.

Conclusion

Persistent chronic bacterial infection affects the systemic elevation of WBC in subjects with gingivitis and periodontitis. A local decrease in PMN in periodontitis patients and a systemic increase in lymphocytes in gingivitis and periodontitis patients may indicate the inability of these patients’ organisms to defend against periodontopathic bacteria — and thus susceptibility to disease.

Keywords

Gingival microvascular blood White blood cell count Periodontitis Gingivitis 

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Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gediminas Zekonis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ingrida Barzdziukaite
    • 1
  • Jonas Zekonis
    • 1
  • Renata Sadzeviciene
    • 1
  • Sandrita Simonyte
    • 1
  • Juozas Zilinskas
    • 2
  1. 1.Lithuanian University of Health SciencesKaunasLithuania
  2. 2.Public institution “Odontologijos studija”KaunasLithuania

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