Central European Journal of Medicine

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 461–467 | Cite as

Maxillofacial bite injuries treatment — 20 years experience

  • Konstantinović S. Vitomir
  • Puzović Z. Dragana
Research Article



Management of bite injuries of the face is a part of everyday maxillofacial practice. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the bite injuries in the maxillo-facial region and to recommend treatment protocols.

Materials and methods

The study was performed as a retrospective analysis of the medical records of University Clinic for maxillo-facial surgery in Belgrade. A total of 408 patients were treated for bite injuries of the maxillofacial region according to the same surgical protocol.


Animal bite injuries (92.9%) were much more common than human bites (7.1%). Dog bites (98.9%) were almost exclusive among animal bite injuries. Young males (58.7%), children and adolescents (44%) are predominately involved. The most frequently injured facial structure were lips (49.2%). Human bites presented in young males (86.2%), resulted from physical conflicts (58.6%) mostly affected cheeks (50%). Majority of injuries were Lackmann’s Class I and II.


There were no reported infections or other complications after treatment with no need for secondary reconstruction. Factors that contribute to a good clinical outcome are: stage of the injury; short time interval from the injury to the admission into the hospital; no infection signs on admission; adequate surgical protocol with antibiotic prophylaxis.


Dog bite Human bite injuries Maxillofacial region Treatment protocol 


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Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinović S. Vitomir
    • 1
  • Puzović Z. Dragana
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, School of DentistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of DentistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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