Pathophysiological characterization of drug hypersensitivity to tribenoside
Tribenoside is a semisynthetic sugar derivative that is mainly indicated for treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Up to 10% of patients treated by tribenoside can suffer from skin side effects. The adverse effects usually present as angioedema, urticaria, or maculopapular exanthema. The pathophysiology of the reaction has not as yet been elucidated.
In this study, we examined 22 patients with drug eruptions caused by tribenoside. Patch tests were performed to investigate in vivo cellular reactions. Laboratory investigations were carried out by lymphocyte transformation tests and basophil activation tests.
We found a positive patch test reaction to tribenoside in one patient. The lymphocyte transformation test elicited a borderline positive reaction in one patient, and the basophil activation test gave a clearly positive reaction in another patient.
The diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions is a challenge. Both delayed and immediate immunologic response may play a role in the etiology of tribenoside-induced exanthemas. Our investigation and results indicate that benzoic acid could be the antigenic determinant in drug hypersensitivity to tribenoside.
KeywordsBasophil activation test Benzoic acid Drug hypersensitivity Lymphocyte transformation test Patch test Tribenoside
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