Central European Journal of Medicine

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 776–789 | Cite as

Using fractal dimension to evaluate alveolar bone defects treated with various bone substitute materials

  • Marcin Kozakiewicz
  • Sławomir Chaberek
  • Katarzyna Bogusiak
Research Article



This study analyzed how different implanted materials affected the healing of alveolar defects using fractal dimension (FD) computation taken from radiographs.


236 patients with bone defects in the upper/lower jaw were selected to this study and treated with: algae derived hydroxyapatite (AHA), bovine bone mineral (BBM), beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA), biological active glass (BAG), autogenous bone grafts (ABG), reference group (REF) — intact bone. 22 patients with bone defects where the bone substitute was not introduced made NON group. The results were monitored using intraoral x-ray imaging.


FD varied with the different biomaterials throughout the time of observation and reflected individual character of bone remodeling. Fractal analysis of intact and augmented bone during observation showed higher FD for the intact bone in comparison with the biomaterials site.


Fractal techniques can be a descriptor of bone substitutes. On the basis of the differences in the dynamics of alteration between different bone substitute materials we can distinguish two groups of them. Visible changes in the structure emerge earlier in places of implantation of BBM and TCP in comparison to the group of biomaterials constituting more stable patterns of radiotexture: AHA, BAG, SHA.


Biocompatible Materials Bone Resorption Bone Substitutes Fractal analysis Image Processing Mandible Maxillary Sinus Subtraction Technique 


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Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcin Kozakiewicz
    • 1
  • Sławomir Chaberek
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Bogusiak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Maxillofacial SurgeryMedical University of LodzLodzPoland
  2. 2.Independent Clinical HospitalOtwockPoland
  3. 3.Department of Craniomaxillofacial and Oncological SurgeryMedical University of LodzLodzPoland

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