Advertisement

Central European Journal of Medicine

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 30–40 | Cite as

The role of selected risk factors for development of oesophageal cancer

  • Helena Kollárová
  • Kateřina Azeem
  • Silvie Magnusková
  • Hana Tomášková
  • Jarmila Ševčíková
  • Dagmar Horáková
  • Vojtěch Kamarád
  • Vladimír Janout
Research Article
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

A hospital-based analytical observational case-control study of 88 oesophageal cancer cases and 200 controls was conducted in the University Hospital Olomouc. A standardized questionnaire was used. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) are calculated by logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratios for tobacco smoking were 6.20 (95% CI 2.78–13.83), 10.64 (95% CI 3.46–32.72) and 3.53 (95% CI 1.26–9.88) for oesophageal cancer, for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, respectively. An inverse association with overweight and obesity was found in both histological types. In adenocarcinoma, there was a relatively strong positive association with a statistically significant result for alcohol consumption only in a group consuming more than 300 g of alcohol weekly; the OR was 5.81 (95% CI 1.17–28.84). The strong, statistically significant association was found in alcohol consumption regardless of histological type: the OR was 4.41 (95% CI 1.09–17.84). In a group with 20 or more X-ray exposures, there was a very strong statistically significant positive association. In vegetable consumption, an inverse association was found that was statistically significant only if more than 8 portions of vegetables were eaten weekly, ORs were 0.02–0.11.

Keywords

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma Risk factor Protective factor Case-control study Analysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Dušek L, et al. Epidemiology of malignant tumours of the oesophagus (C15). In: Czech cancer care in numbers 2008–2009. Praha: Grada; 2010Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Dušek L, Mužík J, Kubásek M, Koptíková J, Žaloudík J, Vytula R. Epidemiologie zhoubných nádorů v České republice [online]. Masarykova Univerzita 2005 [cited 2012-6-21]. Available from www:http://www.svod.cz. Version 7.0
  3. [3]
    Klener P. Karcinom jícnu. In: Klener P. Klinická onkologie. Praha: Karolinum-Galén; 2002. p. 397–398Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Bray I, Brennan P, Boffetta P. Projections of alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer mortality in Central Europe. Int J Cancer. 2000; 87: 122–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Abnet CC, Freedman ND, Hollenbeck AR, Fraumeni JF Jr, Leitzmann M, Schatzkin A. A prospective study of BMI and risk of oesophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2008; 44: 465–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Veugelers PJ, Porter GA, Guernsey DL, Casson AG. Obesity and lifestyle risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2006; 19: 321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Solaymani-Dodaran M, Logan R, West J. Risk of oesophageal cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus and gastrooesophageal reflex. Gut. 2004; 53: 1070–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Crane SJ, Locke GR 3rd, Harmsen WS, Diehl NN, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ 3rd. Subsite-specific risk factors for esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroeneterol. 2007; 102: 1596–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Kubo A, Corley DA. Body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus or gastric cardia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 872–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Winberg H, Lindblad M, Lagergren J, Dahlstrand H. Risk factors and chemoprevention in Barrett’s esophagus—an update. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012; 47(4): 397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    van Blankenstein M, Looman CW, Hop WC, Bytzer P. The incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Barrett’s esophagus makes a difference. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 766–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Bosetti C, Rosato V, Polesel J, Levi F, Talamini R, Montella M. Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer. 2012 Apr 20: 1–9Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Lambert R, Hainaut P. Epidemiology of oesophagogastric cancer. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2007; 21(6): 921–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Vioque J, Barber X, Bolumar F, Porta M, Santibáñez M, de la Hera MG et al. PANESOES Study Group. Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain. BMC Cancer. 2008; 8: 221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Lin J, Zeng R, Cao W, Luo R, Chen J, Lin Y. Hot beverage and food intake and esophageal cancerin southern China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12(9): 2189–2192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Guo F, Liu Y, Wang X, He Z, Weiss NS, Madeleine MM. Human papillomavirus infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a casecontrol study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(5): 780–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Mao WM, Zheng WH, Ling ZQ. Epidemiologic risk factors for esophageal cancer development. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12(10): 2461–2466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Freedman ND. Abnet CC, Leitzmann MF, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A. Prospective investigation of the cigarette smoking-head and neck cancer association by sex. Cancer. 2007; 110: 1593–1601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Liao LM, Vaughan TL, Corley DA, Cook MB, Casson AG, Kamangar F. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use reduces the risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in a pooled analysis. Gastroenterology. 2012; 142(3): 442–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Jurisi V, Stojacic-Djenic S, Colovic N, Konjevic G. The role of cytokine in regulation of the natural killer cell aktivity. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2008; 136(7–8): 423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Bogdanov M, Perisic M, Jurisic V, Stojacic-Djenic S, Kerkez MM. Ultrasonographic examination of the liver circulation in patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. J BUON. 2010; 15(2): 378–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Yang H, Sukocheva OA, Hussey DJ, Watson DI. Estrogen, male dominance and esophageal adenocarcinoma: is there a link? World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(5): 393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Balbuena L, Casson AG. Physical activity, obesity and risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Future Oncol. 2009; 5: 1051–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Key TJ, Schatzkin A, Willett WC, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of cancer], Public Health Nutr. 2004; 7: 187–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    United nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation unscear 2008 (Unscear 2008). Sources of ionizing radiation: report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes, report vol. I. Vienna: 2010Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Lee CI, Elmore JG. Radiation-related risks of imaging studies. [cited 2012 Jan 2] Available from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/radiationrelated-risks-of-imaging-studies?source=search_result&selectedTitle=6~150
  27. [27]
    Patel ZS, Grugan KD, Rustgi AK, Cucinotta FA, Huff JL. Ionizing radiation enhances esophageal epithelial cell migration and invasion through a paracrine mechanism involving stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor. Radiat Res. 2012; 177(2): 200–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Terry P, Lagergren J, Hansen H, Wolk A, Nyrén O. Fruit and vegetable consumption in the prevention of oesophageal and cardia cancers. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001; 10: 365–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Brown LM, Hoover R, Silverman D, Baris D, Hayes R, Swanson GM. et al. Excess incidence of squamous cell esophageal cancer among US Black men: role of social class and other risk factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2001; 153: 114–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Engel LS, Chow WH, Vaughan TL, Gammon MD, Risch HA, Stanford JL et al. Population attributable risks of esophageal and gastric cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 1404–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Steevens J, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Int J Cancer. 2011; 129: 2681–2693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Bravi F, Edefonti V, Randi G, Garavello W, La Vecchia C, Ferraroni M et al. Dietary patterns and the risk of esophageal cancer. Ann Onc. 2012; 23(3): 765–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010; 127: 2893–29Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Coleman MP, Gatta G, Verdecchia A, Estève J, Sant M, Storm H et al. EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century. Ann Oncol. 2003; 14: 128–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Hashibe M, Boffetta P, Janout V, Zaridze D, Shangina O, Mates D et al. Esophageal cancer in Central and Eastern Europe: tobacco and alcohol. Int J Cancer. 2007; 120: 1518–1522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Lee CH, Lee JM, Wu DC, Hsu HK, Kao EL, Huang HL et al. Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan. Int J Cancer. 2005; 113: 475–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Jankowski JA, Wright NA, Meltzer SJ, Triadafilopoulos G, Geboes K, Casson AG et al. Molecular evolution of the metaplasia-dysplasiaadenocarcinoma sequence in the esophagus. Am J Pathol. 1999; 154: 965–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Wu AH, Wan P, Bernstein L. A multiethnic population-based study of smoking, alcohol and body size and risk of adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001; 12: 721–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Chen Z, Yang G, Zhou M, Smith M, Offer A, Ma J et al. Body mass index and mortality from ischaemic heart disease in a lean population: 10 year prospective study of 220,000 adult men. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35: 141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Gammon MD, Schoenberg JB, Ahsan H, Risch HA, Vaughan TL, Chow WH et al. Tobacco, alcohol, and socioeconomic status and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997; 89: 1277–1284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Lindblad M, Rodríguez LA, Lagergren J. Body mass, tobacco and alcohol and risk of esophageal, gastric cardia, and gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma among men and women in a nested case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2005; 16: 285–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Vial M, Grande L, Pera M. Epidemiology of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastric cardia, and upper gastric third. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2010; 182: 1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Ouattara M, D’Journo XB, Loundou A, Trousse D, Dahan L, Doddoli C. Body mass index kinetics and risk factors of malnutrition one year after radical oesophagectomy for cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012; 41(5): 1088–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Metaanalysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 143: 199–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Sovová E, Hobzová M, Pastucha D. et al. Syndrom obstrukční spánkové apnoe a kardiovaskulární komplikace — úloha mezioborové spolupráce. Cesk Slov Neurol. 2010; 73/106(1): 68–72Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Pastucha D, Sovová E, Mailinčíková J et al. Pohybové aktivity jako součást prevence kardiovaskulárních onemocnění v ordinaci praktického lékaře. Praktický lékař. 2010; 90(8): 467–470Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. IARC Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Ethyl Carbamate (Urethane). IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2007: 96Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Wu AH, Wan P, Bernstein L. A multiethnic population-based study of smoking, alcohol and body size and risk of adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001; 12: 721–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Kollarova H, Machova L, Horakova D, Janoutova G, Cizek L, Janout V. Risk factors of oesophageal cancer. Gastrology and Hepatology. 2008; 62: 79–83Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Micke O, Schafer U, Glashorster M, Prott FJ, Willich N. Radiation-induced esophageal carcinoma 30 years after mediastinal irradiation: case report and review of the literature. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1999; 29: 164–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Marchese MJ, Liskow A, Chang CH. Radiation therapy associated cancer of the esophagus. N Y State J Med. 1986; 86: 152–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Santibañez M, Vioque J, Alguacil J, Barber X, García de la Hera M, Kauppinen T, PANESOES Study Group. Occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type: a case-control study in eastern Spain. Occup Environ Med. 2008; 65: 774–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    He Z, Zhao Y, Guo C, Liu Y, Sun M, Liu F et al. Prevalence and risk factors for esophageal squamous cell cancer and precursor lesions in Anyang, China: a population-based endoscopic survey. Br J Cancer. 2010; 103(7): 1085–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Gonzalez CA, Pera G, Agudo A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ceroti M, Boeing H et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of stomach and oesophagus adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPICEURGAST). Int J Cancer. 2006; 118: 2559–2566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Glade MJ. Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997. Nutrition. 1999; 15: 523–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Nutritional aspects of the development of cancer. Report of the Working Group on Diet and Cancer of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy. Rep Health Soc Subj. (Lond) 1998; 48:i–xiv: 1–274Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Hajizadeh B, Jessri M, Moasheri SM, Rad AH, Rashidkhani B. Fruits and vegetables consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a casecontrol study. Nutr Cancer. 2011; 63: 707–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Anderson LA, Watson RG, Murphy SJ, Johnston BT, Comber H, McGuigan J et al. Risk factors for Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: results from the FINBAR study. World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13: 1585–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena Kollárová
    • 1
  • Kateřina Azeem
    • 1
  • Silvie Magnusková
    • 1
  • Hana Tomášková
    • 2
  • Jarmila Ševčíková
    • 1
  • Dagmar Horáková
    • 1
  • Vojtěch Kamarád
    • 3
  • Vladimír Janout
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and DentistryPalacky University OlomoucOlomoucCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OstravaOstravaCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of OstravaOstravaCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations