Central European Journal of Medicine

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 409–419 | Cite as

The role of Galactose in human health and disease

  • Muhammad Ramzan Manwar Hussain
  • Mukhtarul Hassan
  • Noor Ahmad Shaik
  • Zeeshan Iqbal
Review Article


According to the universal biological findings, cellular bodies are covered with an intense coating of glycans. Diversity of glycan chains, linked to lipids and proteins is due to isomeric and conformational modifications of various sugar residues, giving rise to unique carbohydrate structures with a wide range of sequences and anomeric configurations. Proteins and lipids, carrying specific sugar residues (like Galactose) with particular stereochemical properties (sequence, anomery and linkages) are involved in broad spectrums of biological processes, including intercellular and intracellular interactions, microbial adhesion and cellular signaling. By studying the role of specific seterochemical features of galactose (Gal), we have improved our understanding about the normal physiology and diseases in human bodies.


D-Galactose Sequence, anomery and linkages Health Diseases 


Different dietary and non dietary factors and genetic su
















Neuraminic acid




5-Glycolyl neuraminic acid

M. pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia

P. granulosum

Propioni granulosum

N. gonococcus

Neisseria gonococcus

E. histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica

H. pylori

Helicobacter pylori


Escherichia coli


Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectins.


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Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Ramzan Manwar Hussain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mukhtarul Hassan
    • 3
  • Noor Ahmad Shaik
    • 4
  • Zeeshan Iqbal
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Molecular sciences and BioinformaticsLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Environment StudiesKing AbdulAziz UniversityJeddahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. 3.Center for Environmental StudiesBrunel UniversityWest LondonUK
  4. 4.Princess Al-Jawhara Center of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Diseases, Department of Genetic Medicine, Faculty of MedicineKing AbdulAziz UniversityJeddahKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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