Advertisement

Hepatitis C virus genotypes in injecting drug users from Romania

  • Camelia Sultana
  • Codruta Vagu
  • Aura Temereanca
  • Camelia Grancea
  • Josefina Slobozeanu
  • Simona Ruta
Research Article
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

Due to the increasing number of infections related to injecting drug use, both the pattern of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, and the circulating genotypes in Europe have changed. As there are little available data in this respect for Romania, the aim of our study was a preliminary analysis of the distribution of HCV genotypes circulating among injecting drug users (IDUs). Of the 45 IDUs evaluated (86.7% men, mean age − 27.6 ± 3.7 years, mean age at first drug use − 17.5 ± 3.9 years), 88.9% presented anti-HCV antibodies, with higher rates in those with an injecting history of more than 10 years; 57.8% of the subjects had detectable HCV viral load. Only 6.7% had markers of chronic hepatitis B infection, and none had anti-HIV antibodies. While HCV subtype 1b is still prevalent (in 50% of the viraemic subjects), other subtypes begin to emerge, especially in younger patients (1a — in 23.1%, 4 — in 11.5%, 3a — in 7.7% of the cases). These data indicate the possibility of major shifts in the distribution of the dominant subtype, underlining the need for close surveillance of HCV infections in IDUs, who can act as a bridging group toward the general population.

Keywords

HCV prevalence Romania Injecting drug users HCV genotypes 

References

  1. [1]
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Surveillance and Prevention of Hepatitis B and C in Europe, ECDC, Stockholm, 2010Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Annual Epidemiological Report on Communicable Diseases in Europe 2010, ECDC, Stockholm, 2010Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Esteban J.I., Sauleda S., Quer J., The changing epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Europe, J. Hepatol., 2008, 48, 148–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe, EMCDDA, Lisbon, 2010Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Gheorghe L., Csiki I.E., Iacob S., Gheorghe C., Smira R., Regep L., The prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in adult population in Romania: a nationwide survey 2006–2008, J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis., 2010, 19(4), 373–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and National Antidrug Agency from Romania (NAA), National report on drugs situation for Romania, New developments, trends and in-depth information on selected issues, REITOX, Bucharest, 2010Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    United Nation on Drugs and Crime, HIV, HBV and HCV behavioral surveillance survey among injecting drug users in Bucharest, Romania, Speed Promotion, Bucharest, 2010Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Rantala M., Van de Laar M., Surveillance and epidemiology of hepatitis B and C in Europe — a review, Eurosurveillance, 2008, http://www.eurosurveillance.org/2008/13/21/reviews/18880
  9. [9]
    Grigorescu M., HCV genotype 1 is almost exclusively present in Romanian patients with chronic hepatitis C, J. Gastrointestin. Liver Dis., 2009, 18(1), 45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Sutton A.J., Hope V.D., Mathei C., Mravcik V., Sebakova H., Vallejo F., et al., A comparison between the force of infection estimates for bloodborne viruses in injecting drug user populations across the European Union: a modelling study, J. Viral Hepatitis, 2008,15(11), 809–816Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    UNGASS, Country Progress Report for Romania, Reporting period: January 2008–December 2009, UNGASS, Romania, 2010Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Bourlière M., Barberin J.M., Rotily M., Guagliardo V., Portal I., Lecomte L., et al., Epidemiological changes in hepatitis C virus genotypes in France: evidence in intravenous drug users, J. Viral Hepatitis, 2002, 9(1), 62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Huppe D., Zehnter E., Mauss S., Boker K., Lutz T., Racky S., et al., Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C in Germany-an analysis of 10,326 patients in hepatitis centres and outpatient units, Z. Gastroenterol., 2008, 46(1), 34–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Cenci M., De Soccio G., Recchia O., Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in central Italy, Anticancer Res., 2003, 23(6D), 5129–5132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Nēmecek V., Strunecký O., Genotypic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from blood donors in the Czech Republic, Epidemiol. Mikrobiol. Imunol., 2009, 58(2), 63–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Chlabicz S., Flisiak R., Kowalczuk O., Grzeszczuk A., Pytel-Krolczuk B., Prokopowicz D, et al., Changing HCV genotypes distribution in Poland — Relation to source and time of infection, J.Clin. Virol., 2008, 42(2), 156–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Svirtlih N., Delic D., Simonovic J., Jevtovic D., Dokic L., Gvozdenovic E., et al., Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Serbia and Montenegro: The prevalence and clinical significance, World J. Gastroenterol., 2007, 13(3), 355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Ahmetagić S., Salkić N., Čičkušić E., Zerem E., Mott-Divković S., Tihić N., Hepatitis C virus genotypes in chronic hepatitis C patients and in first time blood donors in Northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 2009, 9(4), 278–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Paintsil E., Verevochkin S.V., Dukhovlinova E., Niccolai L., Barbour R., White E., et al., Hepatitis C virus infection among drug injectors in St Petersburg, Russia: social and molecular epidemiology of an endemic infection, Addiction., 2009, 104(11), 1881–1890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Tallo T., Norder H., Tefanova V., Krispin T., Schmidt J., Ilmoja M., et al. Genetic characterization of hepatitis C virus strains in Estonia: fluctuations in the predominating subtype with time, J. Med. Virol., 2007, 79, 374–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Colina R., Casane D., Vasquez S., García-Aguirr L., Chunga A., Romero H., et al., Evidence of intratypic recombination in natural populations of hepatitis C virus, J. Gen. Virol., 2004, 85, 31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Kalinina O., Norder H., Magnius L.O., Full-length open reading frame of a recombinant hepatitis C virus strain from St Petersburg: proposed mechanism for its formation, J. Gen. Virol., 2004, 85, 1853–1857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Van de Laar T.J., Van der Bij A.K., Prins M., Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission. J. Infect. Dis., 2007, 196, 230–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Danta M., Brown D., Bhagani S., Recent epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men linked to high-risk sexual behaviours, AIDS, 2007, 21, 983–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Pitigoi D., Rafila A., Pistol A., Arama V., Molagic V., Streinu-Cercel A., Trends in hepatitis B incidence in Romania, 1989–2005, Eurosurveillance, 2008, 13(1–3), 70–74Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Paintsil E., He H., Peters C., Lindenbach B.D., Heimer R., Survival of Hepatitis C Virus in Syringes: Implication for Transmission among Injection Drug Users, J. Infect. Dis., 2010, 202(7), 984–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Huik K., Sadam M., Karki T., Avi R., Krispin T., Paap P., et al., CCL3L1 Copy Number is a strong genetic determinant of HIV seropositivity in caucasian intravenous drug users, J. Infect. Dis., 2010, 201(5), 730–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Ruta S.M., Matusa R.F., Sultana C., Manolescu L., Kozinetz C.A., Kline M., et al., High prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in Romanian adolescents with HIV, Med. Gen. Med., 2005, 7, 68–72Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    National AIDS Committee, Department for AIDS monitoring from Romania, Statistic data on HIV/ AIDS infection in Romania, CNLAS, Bucharest, 2010 (in Romanian)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    EuroHIV, HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. Midyear report 2007 No.76, French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, Saint-Maurice, 2007Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Shakarishvili A., Dubovskaya L.K., Zohrabyan L.S., St Lawrence J.S., Aral S.O., Dugasheva L.G., et al., Sex work, drug use, HIV infection, and spread of sexually transmitted infections in Moscow, Russian Federation, Lancet, 2005, 366, 57–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Jabłonowska E., Małolepsza E., Causes of death in HIV-infected patients in the region of Lodz, Poland from 1995 through 2005, Cent. Eur. J. Med., 2009, 4(2), 179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, The Changing HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Europe and Central Asia, UNAIDS, WHO Library, Geneva, 2004Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camelia Sultana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Codruta Vagu
    • 2
  • Aura Temereanca
    • 1
    • 2
  • Camelia Grancea
    • 2
  • Josefina Slobozeanu
    • 3
  • Simona Ruta
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Chair of VirologyCarol Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Emergent Diseases DepartmentStefan S. Nicolau Institute of VirologyBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Center for Integrated Assistance for Addicts CAIA PantelimonBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations