Population-based cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly in Turkey: a cross-sectional survey
- 51 Downloads
Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and smoking are known to be the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because the elderly population has been increasing globally, CVD may become a more important public health problem in the future. This report examines the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly in Ankara, Turkey. This was a cross-sectional survey and included a total of 2720 individuals living in the Ankara district. Trained research staff administered a standard questionnaire in the participants’ homes and worksites. The questionnaire collected information on clinical and demographic characteristics and a self-reported medical history, including past history of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, coronary artery by-pass graft operation, and cerebrovascular accident. The mean age of the study participants was 69.5 ± 7.2 years. The study identified 1298 women (78.1%) and 753 men (71.2%) with hypertension, and the overall prevalence of hypertension was 75.4%. A total of 739 (27.2%) people had diabetes mellitus, and, of these people, 603 (81.6%) were hypertensive. A total of 1361 people had hyperlipidemia, and 1103 of these patients were also hypertensive. The overall prevalence of obesity was 27.2%. A total of 553 (20.3%) people were smokers. Our findings indicate that cardiovascular risk factors are very common in the elderly. To maximize risk reduction, physicians must take aggressive measures to decrease cardiovascular risk factors.
KeywordsHypertension Diabetes Prevalence Risk factors Elderly Antihypertensive therapy Cardiovascular mortality
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- World Health Organization: The World Health Report ‘Reducing risks, Promoting Healthy Life, Geneva’, World Health Organization, 2002Google Scholar
- Chobanian A.C., Bakris G.L., Black H.R., Cushman W.C., Green L.A., Izzo J.L. Jr., et al., National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure., The JNC 7 Report, JAMA., 2003, 289, 2560–2572Google Scholar
- He J., Whelton P.K., Elevated systolic blood pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease, J. Hypertens Suppl., 1999, 17, 7–13Google Scholar
- Van den Hoogen P.C.W., Feskens E.J.M., Nagelkerke N.J.D., Menotti A., Nissinen A., Kromhout D., for the Seven Countries Study Research Group. The relation between blood pressure and mortality due to coronary heart disease among men in different parts of the world, N. Engl. J. Med. 2000, 342, 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Onat A., Dursunoglu D., Sansoy V., Donmez K., Keles I., Okcun B., et al., Clinical Investigations Trends in Blood Pressure Levels in Turkish Adults:5 year Follow-up of Original Cohort, Archives of the Turkish Society of Cardiology., 1996, 24, 73–81 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
- 2003 European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, J. Hypertens., 2003, 21, 1011–1053Google Scholar
- Bilir N., Doğan B.G., Yıldız A.N., Smoking behavior and attitudes (Turkey). Final Report of Research for International Tobacco Control. Ankara, 1997 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
- Cetinarslan B., Komsuoğlu B., Erem C., Gorcin B., Komsuoglu S.S., Duman E.L., Prevalence of Hypertension and Certain Electrocardiographic Findings Among Elderly People, Archives of the Turkish Society of Cardiology., 1993, 21, 17–21 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
- Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults—The Evidence Report, National Institutes of Health, Obes Res., 1998, Suppl 2, 51–209Google Scholar
- Jonas M.A., Oates J.A., Ockene J.K., Hennekens CH. Statement on smoking and cardiovascular disease for health care professionals, American Heart Association, Circulation., 1992, 86, 1664–1669Google Scholar
- Buyukozturk K., Ilerigelen B., Kabakcı G., Koylan N., Kozan O., Initial / Intensive Cardiovascular Examination Regarding Blood Pressure Levels: Evaluation of Risk Groups (ICEBERG 1-2), Archives of the Turkish Society of Cardiology., 2004, 3, 344–349 (in Turkish)Google Scholar