Hydrogen peroxide induced by modulated electromagnetic radiation protects the cells from DNA damage
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It is believed that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and low-level hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may change nonspecific resistance and modify DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. To check this assumption, the combined effects of extremely high-frequency EMR (EHF EMR) and X-rays on induction of DNA damage in mouse whole blood leukocytes were studied. The cells were exposed to X-rays with or without preliminary treatment with EHF EMR or low-level H2O2. With the use of enhanced chemiluminescence, it was shown for the first time that pulse-modulated EHF EMR (42.2 GHz, incident power density of 0.1 mW/cm2, exposure duration of 20 min, modulation frequency of 1 Hz) induced H2O2 at a concentration of 4.6 ± 0.3 nM L−1 in physiological saline. With the use of an alkaline comet assay, it was found that the exposure of cells to the pulse-modulated EHF EMR, 25 min prior to treatment with X-rays at a dose of 4 Gy reduced the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Continuous EHF EMR was inefficient. In turn, it was shown that low-level H2O2 (30–500 nM L−1) protected the cells against X-irradiation. Thus, the mechanisms of radiation protective effect of EHF EMR are connected with the induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated EHF EMR.
KeywordsExtremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation Pulse modulation X-rays Hydrogen peroxide DNA damage Comet assay Protective effect
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