Central European Journal of Biology

, Volume 5, Issue 6, pp 853–863 | Cite as

Bulgarian golden root in vitro cultures for micropropagation and reintroduction

  • Krasimira Tasheva
  • Georgina KosturkovaEmail author
Research Article


Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal plant used for cancer, cardiovascular, and nervous system diseases therapy. Due to its limited distribution and sustainability alternative methods for production of its valuable substances are under investigation. Using in vitro techniques apical and rhizome buds, leaf nodes, stem and radix segments from wild plants and in vitro seedlings were plated on 24 modified Murashige and Skoog (1962) media. Decontamination of plant material was successful only in 21% of the schemes. The best shoot induction was obtained from seedling explants on media containing 2 mg/l zeatin or N6-benzylaminopurine, each. Their reduction stimulated shoot formation in the next passages (multiplication rate up to 5). Efficient rooting was induced on half-strength MS with 2 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid and stimulated by adding 0.2 mg/l Indolyl-3-acetic acid. Regenerants rooted in perlite, peat, and soil (1:1:2), adapted in greenhouse, and transplanted in the mountains survived (70%) and developed like the wild plants. Salidroside content of these plants after one or two years was high (0.64 and 0.61% in rhizomes and 0.62 and 0.53% in roots, respectively). This is the first established efficient scheme for micropropagation of Bulgarian R. rosea allowing habitats restoration, germplasm conservation, and potential application of biotechnology for production of valuable substances.


Rhodiola rosea Golden root Medicinal herb In vitro response Micropropagation Germplasm conservation Salidroside 





Gibberellic acid


Indolyl-3-acetic acid


Indole 3-butyric acid




Murashige and Skoog medium, 1962


α- naphthyl acetic acid


photon flux density




6-(y,y-dimethylallyl amino) purine


2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Valev S., Genus Rhodiola L., In: Jordanov D., (Ed.), Flora Reipublicae Popularis Bulgaricae Vl. 4, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1970, 619–620Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Ganzera M., Yayla Y., Khan I.A., Analysis of the marker compounds of Rhodiola rosea L. (golden root) by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Arch. Pharm. Res., 2000, 23, 349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Kelly G.S., Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen, Altern. Med. Rev., 2001, 6, 293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Platikanov S., Evstatieva L., Introduction of Wild Golden Root (Rhodiola rosea L.) as a Potential Economic Crop in Bulgaria, Econ. Bot., 2008, 62, 621–627Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Kaftanat V.N., Bodrug M.V., Floryia V.N., Enhanced multiplication of Rhodioloa rosea in Moldova, Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Medicinal Botany (Kiev, USSR), 1988, 64, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Furmanowa M., Oledzka H., Michalska M., Sokolnicka I., Radomska D., XXII. Rhodiola rosea L. (Roseroot): In vitro Regeneration and the Biological Activity of Roots, In: Bajaj Y.P.S., (Ed.), Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 33, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants VIII, Springer, Heidelberg, 1995, 412–426Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Yin W.B., Li W., Du G.S., Huang Q.N., Studies on tissue culture of Tibetan Rhodiola rosea, Acta Bot. Boreal. Occident. Sin., 2004, 24, 1506–1510Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Ishmuratova M.M., Clonal micropropagation of Rhodiola rosea L. and R. iremelica Boriss. in vitro, Rastitel’nye Resursy (Plant resources), 1998, 34, 12–23, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Ishmuratova M.M., Effect of Rhodiola rosea Plant Extracts on the in vitro Development of Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola iremelica Boriss. explants, Biotekhnologiya (Biotechnology in Russia), 2002, 6, 52–56, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    György Z., Glycoside production by in vitro Rhodiola rosea cultures, Ph. D Thesis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2006, (Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, C Technica 244)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Furmanova M., Hartwich M., Alferman A.W., Glucosylation of p-tyrosol to salidroside by Rhodiola rosea L. cell cultures, Herba Pol., 2002, 48, 71–76Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Krajewska-Patan A., Dreger M., Lowicka A., Gorska-Paukszta M., Mścisz A., Mielcarek S., et al., Chemical investigation of biotransformed Rhodiola rosea callus tissue, Herba Pol., 2007, 53, 77–87Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Debnath Samir C., Zeatin and TDZ-induced Shoot Proliferation and Use of Bioreactor in Clonal Propagation of Medicinal Herb, Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L), J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol., 2009, 18, 245–248Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Murashige T., Skoog F., A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures, Physiol. Plant, 1962, 15, 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Pharmacopoeia XI, 2, Medicina, Moscow, USSR State, 1990, 364–366Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Bozhilova M., Evstatieva L., Tasheva K., Salidroside content in in vitro propagated Rhodiola rosea L., In: Ruzckova G., (Ed.), Proceedings of Scientific Papers of the 5th Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries (2–5 September 2008, Brno, Czech Republic), Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, 2008, 159Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    H.J. Liu, Y. Xu, Y.J. Liu, C.Z Liu, Plant regeneration from leaf explants of Rhodiola fastigiata, In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 2004, 42, 345–347Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Gogu G., Hârţan M., Nicuţą D., Maftei D., Preliminary data regarding Rhodiola rosea L. in vitro, In: G. Ruzckova, (Ed.), Proceedings of Scientific Papers of the 5th Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries (2-5 September 2008, Brno, Czech Republic), Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, 2008, 1–6Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Kapchina-Toteva V., Sokolov L., In vitro micropropagation of Rhodiola rosea L., Annuaire de L’Universite de Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 1997, 88, 222–226Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Dimitrov B., Tasheva K., Zagorska N., Evstatieva L., In vitro cultivation of Rhodiola rosea L., Genetics and Breeding, 2003, 32, 3–6Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Brown R.P., Gerbarg P.L., Ramazanov Z., Rhodiola rosea: A Phytomedicinal overview, Herbal Gram - The Journal of the American Botanical Council, 2002, 56, 40–52Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Revina T.A., Krasnov E., Sviridova T., Stepaniuk G., Surov U., Biological characteristics and chemical content of Rhodiola rosea L. cultivated in Tomsk, Plant Resources, 1976, 12, 355–360, (in Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeneticsBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations