Enhancement of tyrosine hydroxylase expression by Cordyceps militaris
- 53 Downloads
Cordyceps militaris is a popular medicinal mushroom, and has received extensive attention for medical application because of its various physiological activities. However, there is limited information about the function of Cordyceps militaris on dopaminergic system. This study has attempted to evaluate the effect of cultured fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) on the expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene in PC12 cells and rat brain and stomach. Related mRNA levels were determined by the RT-PCR. Protein levels were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated CME induced TH gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of 10 µg/ml and 20 mg/kg CME to PC12 cells and rat cells yielded significant increases of TH protein levels. Significantly, TH immunoreactive neurons were detected not only in the brain but also in the stomach. TH-immunohistochemical staining was markedly enhanced in animals treated with CME compared to those in the untreated control. These results suggest that CME can upregulate the dopaminergic (DArgic) system, and may contribute to neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases.
KeywordsCordyceps militaris Tyrosine hydroxylase Parkinson’s disease Dopaminergic neuron
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Sierpinska A., Towards an integrated management of Dendrolimus pini L., Proceedings: Population dynamics, impacts, and integrated management of forest defoliation insects, USDA forest service general technical report NE, 1998, 247, 129–142Google Scholar
- Seldin D., Urbano S.L.A., McCaffrey F., Foss R., Phase I trial of cordycepin and deoxycoformycin in TdT-positive acute leukemia, Blood, 1997, 90, 246Google Scholar
- Theofilopoulos S., Goggi J., Riaz S.S., Jauniaux E., Stern G.M., Bradford H.F., Parallel induction of the formation of dopamine and its metabolites with induction of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in foetal rat and human cerebral cortical cells by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor, Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res., 2001, 127, 111–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lopez-Toledano M.A., Redondo C., Lobo M.V., Reimers D., Herranz A.S., Paino C.L., et al., Tyrosine hydroxylase induction by basic fibroblast growth factor and cyclic AMP analogs in striatal neural stem cells: role of ERK1/ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 2004, 52, 1177–1189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagamoto-Coombs K., Piech K.M., Best J.A., Sun B., Tank A.W., Tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter activity is regulated by both cyclic AMP-responsive element and AP1 sites following calcium influx, Evidence for cyclic amp-responsive element binding protein-independent regulation, J. Biol. Chem., 1997, 272, 6051–6058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim K.S., Lee M.K., Carroll J., Joh T.H., Both the basal and inducible transcription of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene are dependent upon a cAMP response element, J. Biol. Chem.,1993, 25, 15689–15695Google Scholar
- Wood J.D., Enteric nervous system: Physiology, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Elsevier, 2009, 1103–1113Google Scholar
- Li Z.S., Schmauss C., Cuenca A., Ratcliffe E., Gershon M.D., Physiological modulation of intestinal motility by enteric dopaminergic neurons and the D2 receptor: analysis of dopamine receptor expression, location, development, and function in wild-type and knock-out mice, J. Neurosci., 2006, 26, 2798–2807CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar