Paladyn

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 219–230 | Cite as

Non-facial and non-verbal affective expression for appearance-constrained robots used in victim management

Article

Abstract

Non-facial and non-verbal methods of affective expression are essential for social interaction in appearance-constrained robots such as those used in search and rescue, law enforcement, and military applications. This research identified five main methods of non-facial and non-verbal affective expression (body movements, postures, orientation, color, and sound). Based on an extensive review of literature, prescriptive design recommendations were developed for the appropriate non-facial and non-verbal affective expression methods for three proximity zones of interest (intimate, personal, and social). These design recommendations serve as guidelines to add retroactively affective expression through software with minimal or no physical modification to a robot. A large-scale, complex human-robot interaction study was conducted to validate these design recommendations using 128 participants and four methods of evaluation. The study was conducted in a high-fidelity, confined-space simulated disaster site with all robot interactions performed in the dark. Statistically significant results indicated that participants felt the robots that exhibited affective expressions were more calming, friendly, and attentive, which improved the social human-robot interactions.

Keywords

Human-Robot Interaction Design Guidelines Non-Verbal Communication Affective Expression Appearance-Constrained Robots 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Breazeal, C.L.: Designing Sociable Robots. Intelligent Robots and Autonomous Agents. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (2002)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Cañamero, L.D., Fredslund, J.: How Does It Feel? Emotional Interaction with a Humanoid Lego Robot. In: K. Dautenhahn (ed.) AAAI 2000 Fall Symposium — Socially Intelligent Agents: The Human in the Loop, vol. Technical Report FS-00-04, pp. 23–28. AAAI, Menlo Park, CA (2000)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Fong, T., Nourbakhsh, I., Dautenhahn, K.: A Survey of Socially Interactive Robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 42(3–4), 143 (2003)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Kirby, R., Forlizzi, J., Simmons, R.: Affective Social Robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 58, 322–332 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Mizoguchi, H., Sato, T., Takagi, K., Nakao, M., Hatamura, Y.: Realization of Expressive Mobile Robot. In: 1997 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 1, pp. 581–586 (1997)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Scheeff, M., Pinto, J., Rahardja, K., Snibbe, S., Tow, R.: Experiences with Sparky, a Social Robot. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Robot Entertainment (2000)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Bethel, C.L., Murphy, R.R.: Survey of Non-Facial/Non-Verbal Affective Expressions for Appearance-Constrained Robots. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, Cybernetics, Part C 38(1) (2008)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Argyle, M.: Bodily Communication. Methuen, London (1975)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Bull, P.: Posture and Gesture, 1st edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford Oxfordshire; New York (1987)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Bethel, C.L., Murphy, R.R.: Affective Expression in Appearance-Constrained Robots. In: 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2006), pp. 327–328. ACM Press, Salt Lake City, UT (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Jones, A.E., Kline, J.A.: Shock. In: J.A. Marx (ed.) Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice, 7th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA (2009)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Buck, R.: The Communication of Emotion. Guilford Press, New York (1984)Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Fast, J.: Body Language. M. Evans; distributed in association with Lippincott, New York (1970)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Bickmore, T.W., Picard, R.W.: Towards Caring Machines. In: E. Dykstra-Erickson, M. Tscheligi (eds.) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI’ 04 Extended Abstracts on Human factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1489–1492. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA, Vienna, Austria (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Bruce, A., Nourbakhsh, I., Simmons, R.: The Role of Expressiveness and Attention in Human-Robot Interaction. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, (ICRA’ 02), vol. 4, pp. 4138–4142 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Dautenhahn, K., Walters, M., Woods, S., Koay, K.L., Nehaniv, C.L., Sisbot, A., Alami, R., Siméon, T.: How May I Serve You?: A Robot Companion Approaching a Seated Person in a Helping Context. In: 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2006), pp. 172–179. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA, Salt Lake City, UT (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Fincannon, T., Barnes, L.E., Murphy, R.R., Riddle, D.L.: Evidence of the Need for Social Intelligence in Rescue Robots. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2004), vol. 2, pp. 1089–1095 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Moshkina, L., Arkin, R.C.: Human perspective on Affective Robotic Behavior: A Longitudinal Study. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2005), pp. 2443–2450 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Sugano, S., Ogata, T.: Emergence of Mind in Robots for Human Interface — Research Methodology and Robot Model. In: 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 2, pp. 1191–1198 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Norman, D.A.: Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Basic Books, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Balkwill, L., Thompson, W.F., Matsunaga, R.I.E.: Recognition of Emotion in Japanese, Western, and Hindustani Music by Japanese Listeners. Japanese Psychological Research 46(4), 337–349 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Nass, C., Moon, Y.: Machines and Mindlessness: Social Responses to Computers. Journal of Social Issues 56(1), 81–103 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Takayama, L., Pantofaru, C.: Influences on Proxemic Behaviors in Human-Robot Interaction. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS’09) (2009)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Walters, M.L., Dautenhahn, K., te Boekhorst, R., Kheng Lee, K., Kaouri, C., Woods, S., Nehaniv, C., Lee, D., Werry, I.: The Influence of Subjects’ Personality Traits on Personal Spatial Zones in a Human-Robot Interaction Experiment. In: IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (ROMAN 2005), pp. 347–352 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Bethel, C.L.: Robots Without Faces: Non-Verbal Social Human-Robot Interaction. Dissertation, University of South Florida (2009)Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Bethel, C.L., Murphy, R.R.: Non-Facial/Non-Verbal Methods of Affective Expression as Applied to Robot-Assisted Victim Assessment. In: 2nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2007), pp. 287–294. ACM Press, Arlington, VA (2007)Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Bethel, C.L., Murphy, R.R.: Review of Human Studies Methods in HRI and Recommendations. International Journal of Social Robotics (2010)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Murphy, R.R., Riddle, D., Rasmussen, E.: Robot-Assisted Medical Reachback: A Survey of How Medical Personnel Expect to Interact with Rescue Robots. In: 13th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2004), pp. 301–306 (2004)Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Riddle, D.R., Murphy, R.R., Burke, J.L.: Robot-Assisted Medical Reachback: Using Shared Visual Information. In: IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (ROMAN 2005), pp. 635–642. IEEE, Nashville, TN (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Paffenbarger, R.S.J., Wing, A., Hyde, R.: Physical Activity as an Index of Heart Attack Risk in College Alumni. American Journal of Epidemiology 108, 161–175 (1978)Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Buysse, D.J., Reynolds, C.F., Monk, T.H., Berman, S.R., Kupfer, D.J.: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A New Instrument for Psychiatric Practice and Research. Psychiatry Research 28, 193–213 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., Mermelstein, R.: A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24, 385–396 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Blake, R.L.J., McKay, D.A.: A Single-Item Measure of Social Supports as a Predictor of Morbidity. Journal of Family Practice 22(1), 82–84 (1986)Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Spielberger, C., Gorsuch, R., Lushene, R.: Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologist Press, Palo Alto, CA (1970)Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A.: Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(6), 1063–1070 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Bradley, M.M., Lang, P.J.: Measuring Emotion: The Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 25, 49–59 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Mutlu, B., Osman, S., Forlizzi, J., Hodgins, J.K., Kiesler, S.: Task Structure and User Attributes as Elements of Human-Robot Interaction Design. In: 15th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2006). IEEE, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK (2006)Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Bethel, C.L., Salomon, K., Burke, J.L., Murphy, R.R.: Psychophysiological Experimental Design for Use in Human-Robot Interaction Studies. In: The 2007 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS 2007). IEEE, Orlando, FL (2007)Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Bethel, C.L., Salomon, K., Murphy, R.R., Burke, J.L.: Survey of Psychophysiology Measurements Applied to Human-Robot Interaction. In: 16th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication. Jeju Island, South Korea (2007)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Bartneck, C.: Affective Expressions of Machines. Masters thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology (2000)Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Dautenhahn, K., Ogden, B., Quick, T.: From Embodied to Socially Embedded Agents — Implications for Interaction-Aware Robots. Cognitive Systems Research 3(3), 397 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Hall, E.T.: The Hidden Dimension. Doubleday, New York (1966)Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Spiegel, J.P., Machotka, P.: Messages of the Body. Free Press, New York, NY (1974)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Center for Robot-Assisted Search and RescueTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations