Advertisement

Biologia

pp 1–8 | Cite as

A comparative study of Trypanosoma sp. (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) parasitizing four species of loricarides in the Brazilian Amazon

  • Darlison Chagas de SouzaEmail author
  • Lincoln Lima Corrêa
Original Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Trypanosomes are flagellate hemoparasites that infect a wide variety of vertebrates, with neotropical freshwater fish of the Loricariidae family among their known hosts. The present study describes the morphometry of three morphotypes of Trypanosoma sp. parasites of four species of loricariids in the Brazilian Amazon. Between April and May 2018, 28 specimens of Pterygoplichthys pardalis were captured in Pacoval Lake and one specimen of Hypostomus sp., one specimen of Squaliforma sp. and one representative of Lamontichthys cf. stibaros were collected from the mouth of the Tapajós River, in an area known as Enseada Grande, located in the municipal region of Santarém, in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil. A blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture and smears were prepared. The trypanosomes were photographed to allow morphometry to be carried out. The specimens of Squaliforma sp., Lamontichthys cf. stibaros and Hypostomus sp. exhibited infection with trypanosomatids whereas of the 28 specimens of P. pardalis, only five were infected by Trypanosoma sp., representing a prevalence of 17.86%, with a mean infection intensity of 11 × 104 parasites/mL and an average abundance of 0.37. The presence of three morphological types of Trypanosoma sp. infecting the Loricariids was identified. Morphotype A was identified infecting P. pardalis and L. cf. stibaros, morphotype B infected Squaliforma sp. and Hypostomus sp. and morphotype C infected only L. cf. stibaros. Mixed infection by morphotypes A and C was observed in L. cf. stibaros.

Keywords

Hemoparasites Fish Brazilian Amazon 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES) for the scholarship of Darlison C. Souza.

Compliance with ethical standards

The authors are fully committed to the COPE guidelines (Committee On Publication Ethics) and declare that all institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. The method by the was approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals of the Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará under certificate number 0420180027. Was also submitted to the national genetic heritage management system and associated traditional knowledge, as summarized below, was registered in SisGen, in compliance with the provisions of Law 13,123/2015 and certificate number A099911.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahmed MS, Shafiq K, Ali H, Ollevier F (2011) Pathogenic effects associated with Trypanosoma danilewskyi strain FCC 1 infection in juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. J Anim Plant Sci 21:800–806Google Scholar
  2. Borges AR, Lemos M, Morais DH, Souto-Pedrón T, D’agosto A (2016) In vitro culture and morphology of fish trypanosomes from South American wetland areas. SOJ Microbiol Infect Dis 4:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.15226/sojmid/4/2/00151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak AW (1997) Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol 83:575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chiachio MC, Oliveira C, Montoya-Burgos JI (2008) Molecular systematic and historical biogeography of the armored neotropical catfishes Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Mol Phylogen Evol 49:606–617.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Corrêa LL, Oliveira SBO, Tavares-Dias M, Ceccarelli PS (2016) Infections of Hypostomus spp . by Trypanosoma spp . and leeches: a study of hematology and record of these hirudineans as potential vectors of these hemoflagellates. Braz J Vet Parasitol 25(3):299–305.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612016049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Covain R, Fisch-Muller S, Oliveira C, Mol JH, Montoya-Burgos JI, Dray S (2016) Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification. Mol Phylogen Evol 94:492–517.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.10.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Carli GA (2001) Parasitologia clínica: seleção de métodos e técnicas de laboratório para diagnóstico das parasitoses humanas. Atheneu, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  8. De Jesus RB, Gallani SU, Valladão GMR, Pala G, Da Silva TFA, Da Costa JC, Pilarski F (2018) Trypanosomiasis causing mortality outbreak in nile tilapia intensive farming: identification and pathological evaluation. Aquaculture 491:69–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eiras JC, Takemoto RM, Pavanelli GC (2006) Métodos de estudo e técnicas laboratoriais em parasitologia de peixes. 2. Eduem, MaringáGoogle Scholar
  10. Eiras JC, Takemoto RM, Pavanelli GC (2010) Diversidade de parasitas de peixes de água doce do Brasil. Clichetec, MaringáGoogle Scholar
  11. Eiras JC, Takemoto RM, Pavanelli GC, Luque JL (2012) Checklist of protozoan parasites of fishes from Brazil. Zootaxa 3221:1–25Google Scholar
  12. Fujimoto RY, Neves MS, Santos RFB, Souza NS, Couto MVS, Lopes JNS, Diniz DG, Eiras JC (2013) Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA , Brazil. An Acad Bras Cienc 85:1149–1156.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652013005000039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gu Z, Wang J, Li M, Zhang,J, Ke X, Gong X (2007) Morphological and genetic differences of Trypanosoma in some chinese freshwater fishes: difficulties of species identification. Parasitol Res 101(3):723–730.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-007-0536-5
  14. Le Cren ED (1951) The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). J Anim Ecol 20(2):201–219.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1540 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lemos MBR, Fermino C, Simas-Rodrigues L, Hoffmann R, Camargo EP (2015) Phylogenetic and morphological characterization of trypanosomes from Brazilian armored catfishes and leeches reveal high species diversity, mixed infections and a new fish trypanosome species. Parasit Vectors 8:573.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1193-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lom J (1979) Biology of the trypanosomes and trypanoplasms of fish. In: Lumsden W, Evans D (eds) Biology of the Kinetoplastida, Academic Press, New York, pp 270–336Google Scholar
  17. Molina JP, Riscala MR, Solferini VN, Ceccarelli PS, Pinheiro HP, Ueta MT (2016) Trypanosomatids (Protozoa : Kinetoplastida) in three species of armored catfish from Mogi-Guaçu river. Braz J Vet Parasitol 25:131–141.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612016027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nelson JS (2016) Fishes of the world. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reis RE, Pereira EHL, Armbruster JW (2006) Delturinae, a new loricariid catfish subfamily (Teleostei, Siluriformes), with revisions of Delturus and Hemipsilichthys. Zool J Linn Soc-Lond 147:277–299.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00229.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rodrigues RN, Oliveira MSB, Tavares-Dias M, Corrêa LL (2018) First record of infection by Trypanosoma sp. of Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalmidae), a neotropical fish cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon. J Appl Aquac 30:29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2017.1406420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wazzoner AEAM (1981) Manual de métodos para estudos biológicos de populações de peixes: reprodução e crescimento. Programa Nacional de Zoologia, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  22. Woo PTK, Black GA (1984) Trypanosoma danilewskyi: host specificity and host’s effect on morphometrics. J Parasitol 70:788–793. https://doi.org/10.2307/3281762 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zar JH (2010) Biostatistical analysis. 5 edn. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação Biodiversidade (PPGBEES)SantarémBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das Águas - ICTASantarémBrazil
  3. 3.Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará – UFOPASantarémBrazil

Personalised recommendations