, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 1–13 | Cite as

The endemic orchids of Mexico: a review

  • Luis J. Castillo-Pérez
  • Domingo Martínez-SotoEmail author
  • Juan J. Maldonado-Miranda
  • Angel J. Alonso-Castro
  • Candy Carranza-ÁlvarezEmail author


Orchidaceae is the most extensive family of flowering plants. There are approximately 30,000 - 35,000 species, belonging to 850 genera, dispersed in almost all the ecosystems on earth, except in polar zones and extreme deserts. In Mexico, there are more than 1,200 species distribuited in approximately 170 genera, of which 40% are endemic to the country. In this review, aspects related to geographical distribution, ecology, conservation, biotechnological applications and uses of orchids growing in Mexico are discussed. The geographical zones where their ecological niches are located are described and the zones that belong to priority conservation areas in Mexico are highlighted. In addition, all works on Mexican orchids related to micropropagation, medicinal uses, beneficial applications for humans, and microorganism-host interaction are discussed. In summary, this study provides perspectives for new studies and research focused on the use, propagation and conservation of Mexican endemic orchids.


Mexican orchids conservation ecology endemic species 



This work was partially supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, Mexico), grant number 269491/2016 provided to CCA. Thanks to Dr. Gerardo A. Salazar-Chávez, Dr. Germán Carnevali Fernández-Concha, Mr. Luis Martín Esquivel-Franco, Miss M. Lorena and Mr. Pedro O. González-Zamora for donating some photographs of orchids. Thanks to Litzia Moreno-Infante, Galdino Márquez-Martínez, Laura González-Domínguez, Paola Lucero-Pérez, Lucio Castro-Parra for their technical assistance. LJCP is a student of master’s in science supported by CONACYT fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11756_2018_147_MOESM1_ESM.docx (40 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOCX 39 kb)
11756_2018_147_MOESM2_ESM.docx (43 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 (DOCX 42.9 kb)


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Copyright information

© Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis J. Castillo-Pérez
    • 1
  • Domingo Martínez-Soto
    • 2
    Email author
  • Juan J. Maldonado-Miranda
    • 3
  • Angel J. Alonso-Castro
    • 4
  • Candy Carranza-Álvarez
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Programas Multidisciplinarios de Posgrado en Ciencias AmbientalesUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosíMexico
  2. 2.Ingeniería en Innovación Agrícola SustentableInstituto Tecnológico Superior de Los ReyesLos ReyesMexico
  3. 3.Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Zona HuastecaUniversidad Autónoma de San Luis PotosíCd. VallesMexico
  4. 4.Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y ExactasUniversidad de GuanajuatoGuanajuatoMexico

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