, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 49–56 | Cite as

Longidoridae and nepoviruses in Bulgaria and Slovenia

  • V. K. Peneva
  • G. Urek
  • S. Lazarova
  • S. Širca
  • M. Knapič
  • M. Elshishka
  • D. J. F. Brown
Scientific Article


Data on the distribution of Longidoridae and nepoviruses in Bulgaria and Slovenia are summarized. Six species of Longidorus (L. apulus, L. attenuatus, L. arthensis, L. fasciatus, L. elongatus, L. macrosoma), one Paralongidorus species (P. maximus) and three Xiphinema species (X. diversicaudatum, X. index, X. rivesi) are known as natural vectors of nine nepoviruses in Europe. Currently, 10 and 13 species of Xiphinema; 6 and 15 of Longidorus are reported to occur in Slovenia and Bulgaria, respectively. Paralongidorus maximus has been reported only in Bulgaria. Among the virus vector species X. index, X. diversicaudatum and L. elongatus occur in both countries, X. rivesi only in Slovenia and L. attenuatus, L. macrosoma, X. italiae and P. maximus only in Bulgaria. A report of X. index and Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in Bulgaria was related to transgenic grape tolerance to the same virus. Nepoviruses have been reported from Slovenia, but despite an evident relationship in the occurrence of GFLV and X. index in several vineyards the only laboratory proven transmission is that of TRSV and ToRSV to bait plants by a Slovenian population of X. rivesi.


distribution longidorids Longidorus nepoviruses Xiphinema 


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Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. K. Peneva
    • 1
  • G. Urek
    • 2
  • S. Lazarova
    • 1
  • S. Širca
    • 2
  • M. Knapič
    • 2
  • M. Elshishka
    • 1
  • D. J. F. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem ResearchBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  2. 2.Agricultural institute of SloveniaLjubljanaSlovenia

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