, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 170–178 | Cite as

Ultrastructure of the buccal capsule in the adult female Anguillicoloides crassus (Nematoda: Anguillicolidae)

  • M. Bruňanská
  • H. -P. Fagerholm
  • F. Moravec
  • Z. Vasilková


The fine structure of the buccal capsule of the adult female nematode Anguillicoloides crassus (Spirurina) was studied for the first time. Results are based on serial section (longitudinal and transverse) light and transmission electron microscopy. The buccal capsule of A. crassus is a cuticular-lined structure. It can be divided into three main parts: cheilostom, gymnostom and stegostom. The cheilostom is the anterior region of the buccal capsule with the cuticular lining continuous with the body wall cuticle and underlain by epidermal syncytia. The gymnostom is a cuticular region with portions of it very electron dense and underlain by arcade syncytia. A dense circumoral cylinder together with the circumpharyngeal ring represent the prominent characters of the gymnostom. The stegostom is formed by anterior pharyngeal cuticle underlain by muscular radial cells and epithelial marginal cells. The cephalic cuticle of A. crassus makes a direct contact with the pharyngeal cuticle at the base of the circumoral cylinder, within a circumpharyngeal ring containing projections of pharyngeal muscular and marginal cells. The circumoral cylinder, circumpharyngeal ring and pharynx are connected to the body epidermis by junctional complexes. The buccal capsule includes occasionally 3 projections of the pharynx evidently observed in serial cross sections. These ultrastructural characters may provide useful data for comparative, functional as well as evolutionary studies within the Chromadorea.


Ultrastructure Anguillicoloides crassus Buccal capsule 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baldwin, J. G., Ragsdale, E. (2008): Plant parasitism — evolution of new utensils for eating vegan. In Arlington: 83rd Ann Meet Am Soc Parasitol, p. 36.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, J. G., Ragsdale, E. J., Bumbarger, D. (2004): Revised hypotheses for phylogenetic homology of the stomatostylet. Nematology, 6: 623–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bumbarger, D. J., Crum, J., Ellisman, M. H, Baldwin, J. G. (2006): Three-dimensional reconstruction of the nose epidermal cells in the microbial feeding nematode, Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda: Rhabditida). J. Morphol., 267: 1257–1272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chitwood, B. G. (1950): An outline classification of the Nematoda. In: Chitwood, B. G, Chitwood, M. M. (Eds) Introduction to nematology. Baltimore: University Park Press: 1–30.Google Scholar
  5. Bauer, O. N. (1998): A new parasitic nematode from the genus Anguillicola (Dracunculoidea: Anguillicolidae) in Palaearctic fish. Parazitologiya, 32: 59–65Google Scholar
  6. Bird, A. F., Bird, J. (1991): The structure of nematodes, Academic Press, Inc.: San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruňanská, M., Fagerholm, H. P., Moravec, F. (2007): Structure of the pharynx in the adult nematode Anguillicoloides crassus (Nematoda: Rhabditida). J. Parasitol., 93: 1017–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Ley, P., Van de Velde, M. C., Mounport, D., Baujard, P., Coomans, A. (1995): Ultrastructure of the stoma in Cephalobidae, Panagrolaimidae and Rhabditidae, with a proposal for a revised stoma terminology in Rhabditida (Nematoda). Nematologica, 41: 153–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dick, T. A., Wright, K. A. (1973): The ultrastructure of the cuticle of the nematode Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802). II. Modifications of the cuticle in the head end. Can. J. Zool., 51: 197–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Didžiulis, V. (2006): NOBANIS — Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet — Anguillicola crassus. Online Database of the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species — NOBANIS www.nobanis.org, Date of access 16/7/2008.
  11. Fagerholm, H. P. (1982): Parasites of fish in Finland. VI. Nematodes. Acta Acad. Aboen., Ser. B, Math. & Physica, 40: 1–128.Google Scholar
  12. Gibbons, L. M. (2002): General organisation. In: Lee DL, editor. The biology of nematodes. London: Taylor and Francis: 31–59.Google Scholar
  13. Ivashkin, V. M., Sobolev, A. A., Khromova, L. A. (1971): Camallanids as causative agents of humans and animals. In Osnovy nematodologii 22, Nauka: Moskva (in Russian).Google Scholar
  14. Kennedy, C. R., Di Cave, D., Berrilli, F., Orecchia, P. (1997): Composition and structure of helminth communities in eel Anguilla anguilla from Italian coastal lagoons. J. Helminthol., 71: 35–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirk, R. S. (2003): The impact of Anguillicola crassus on European eels. Fisheries Manag. Ecol., 10: 385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Knopf, K. (2006): The swim bladder nematode Anguillicola crassus in the European eel Anguilla anguilla and the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica: differences in susceptibility and immunity between a recently colonized host and the original host. J. Helminthol., 80: 129–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lamah, T., Franz, M., Mehlhorn, H., Taraschewski, H. (1990): Comparison of Philometra ovata Zeder, 1803 and Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara et al. 1974 (Nematodes, Dracunculoidea) — a light and electron-microscopic studies. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. Biol. Anim., 11: 123–133Google Scholar
  18. Lee, D. L. (1965): The cuticle of adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Parasitology, 55: 173–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, D. L. (1968): The ultrastructure of the alimentary tract of the skin-penetrating larva of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda). J. Zool. Lond., 154: 9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maítlo, P. A., Vich, M. A., Salvadó, H., Marqués, A., Gracia, M. P. (2005): Parasites of Anguilla anguilla (L.) from three coastal lagoons of the River Ebro delta (Western Mediterranean). Acta Parasitol., 50: 156–160Google Scholar
  21. Moravec, F., Škoríková, B. (1998): Amphibians and larvae of aquatic insects as new paratenic hosts of Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea), a swimbladder parasite of eels. Dis. Aquat. Org., 34: 217–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Moravec, F. (2006): Dracunculoid and anguillicoloid nematodes parasitic in vertebrates. Academia: Praha.Google Scholar
  23. Moravec, F. (1998): Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical region. Academia: Praha.Google Scholar
  24. Moravec, F. (2007): Some aspects of the taxonomy and biology of adult spirurine nematodes parasitic in fishes: a review. Folia Parasitol., 54: 239–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Moravec, F. (1992): Spreading of the nematode Anguillicola crassus (Dracunculoidea) among eel populations in Europe. Folia Parasitol., 39: 247–248Google Scholar
  26. Ragsdale, E. J., Crum, J., Ellisman, M. H., Baldwin, J. G. (2008): Phylogenetic implications of three dimensional reconstruction of the stomatostylet and anterior epidermis in Aphenchus avenae. J. Morphol., 269: 1181–1196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sasal, P., Taraschewski, H., Valade, P., Grondin, H., Wielgoss, S., Moravec, F. (2008): Parasite communities in eels of the Island of Reunion (Indian Ocean): a lesson in parasite introduction. Parasitol. Res., 102: 1343–1350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Taraschewski, H., Boomker, J., Knopf, K., Moravec, F. (2005): Anguillicola papernai (Nematoda: Anguillicolidae) and other helminths parasitizing the African longfin eel Anguilla mossambica. Dis. Aquat. Org., 63: 185–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Taraschewski, H., Moravec, F., Lamah, T., Anders, K. 1987: Distribution and morphology of two helminths recently introduced into European eel populations: Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae). Dis. Aquat. Org., 3: 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Taraschewski, H., Renner, C., Mehlhorn, H. (1988): Treatment of fish parasites. 3. Effects of levamisole HCl, metrifonate, fenbendazole, mebendazole, and ivermectin on Anguillicola crassus (nematodes) pathogenic in the air bladder of eels. Parasitol. Res., 74: 281–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Taraschewski, H.: Host and parasites as aliens. J. Helminthol., 80: 99–128Google Scholar
  32. Wijová, M., Moravec, F., Horák, A., Lukeš, J. (2006): Evolutionary relationships of Spirurina (Nematoda: Chromadorea: Rhabditida) with special emphasis on dracunculoid nematodes inferred from SSU rRNA gene sequences. Int. J. Parasitol.. 36: 1067–1075CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wright, K. A., Hope, W.D. (1968): Elaborations of the cuticle of Acanthonchus duplicatus Wieser, 1959 (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae) as revealed by light and electron microscopy. Can. J. Zool., 46: 1005–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wright, K. A., Thomson, J. N. (1981): The buccal capsule of Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea): an ultrastructural study. Can. J. Zool., 59: 1952–1961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wright, K. A. (1975): Cephalic sense organs of the rat hookworm, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis — form and function. Can. J. Zool., 53: 1131–1146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wright, K. A. (1976): Functional organization of the nematode’s head. In: Croll, N. A. (Ed) The organization of nematodes. London: Academic Press: 71–105.Google Scholar
  37. Würtz, J., Taraschewski, H. (2000): Histopathological changes in the swimbladder wall of the European eel Anguilla anguilla due to infections with Anguillicola crassus. Dis. Aquat. Org., 39: 121–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bruňanská
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. -P. Fagerholm
    • 3
  • F. Moravec
    • 1
  • Z. Vasilková
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologyBiology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Parasitological InstituteSlovak Academy of SciencesKošiceSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Laboratory of Aquatic PathobiologyÅbo Akademi UniversityÅbo/TurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations