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Characterization of Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport Chain in Wild and Drug-Resistant Leishmania donovani Promastigote and Amastigote

  • Dipti Debnath
  • Md Akil HossainEmail author
  • Munny Das
  • Asma Kabir
  • Md Ibrahim
  • Mohammad Nurul Amin
  • Amrita Chowdhury
  • Rokeya Pervin
Original Paper
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) is one of the parasites that cause leishmaniasis. The mechanisms by which L. donovani fights against adverse environment and becomes resistant to drugs are not well understood yet.

Objective

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of different regulators on the modulation of Transplasma Membrane Electron Transport (transPMET) systems of susceptible and resistant L. donovani cells.

Materials and Methods

Effects of UV, different buffers, and electron transport inhibitors and stimulators on the reduction of α-lipoic acid (ALA), 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid (NQSA) and ferricyanide were determined.

Results and Discussion

ALA reductions were inhibited in susceptible, sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)-resistant and paromomycin (PMM)-resistant AG83 amastigote cells, and stimulated in susceptible and SAG-resistant AG83 promastigote cells upon UV exposure. The results indicate that UV irradiation almost oppositely affect ALA reductions in amastigotes and promastigotes. ALA reductions were stimulated in sensitive and inhibited in resistant GE1 amastigotes upon UV exposure. Susceptible amastigotes and promastigotes inhibited, and resistant amastigotes and promastigotes stimulated NQSA reduction under UV irradiation. Thus, susceptible and drug-resistant amastigotes and promastigotes are different in the reduction of ALA. Susceptible and resistant AG83 amastigotes and promastigotes inhibited the ferricyanide reductions upon UV exposure, which indicates, there is no such difference in ferricyanide reductions among susceptible as well as resistant AG83 amastigotes and promastigotes. The reductions of extracellular electron excerptors in susceptible promastigotes requires the availability of Na+ and Cl ions for maximal activity but susceptible amastigotes are mostly not dependent on the availability of Na+ and Cl ions. Both in promastigotes and amastigotes, reductions of electron acceptors were strongly inhibited by carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone. Furthermore, antimycin A, rotenone and capsaicin markedly inhibited the reductions of electron acceptors in promastigotes, but not in amastigotes.

Conclusion

Results of this study suggest that the transPMET system is functionally different in wild and resistant strains of L. donovani.

Keywords

L. donovani Electron acceptors Inhibitors and Stimulators 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research did not receive any specific Grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

11686_2019_50_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 kb)

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Copyright information

© Witold Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacyAtish Dipankar University of Science and TechnologyDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Animal and Plant Quarantine AgencyGimcheon-siRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.College of MedicineUniversity of South AlabamaMobileUSA
  4. 4.Division of Medicinal Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical TechnologyJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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