Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 199–210 | Cite as

The biology of Echinoparyphium (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae)

Invited Article

Abstract

Echinoparyphium species are common, widely distributed intestinal parasites causing disease in animals worldwide. Intermediate hosts include snails, bivalves, and fish, whereas the definitive hosts are mainly birds and mammals. This review examines the significant literature on Echinoparyphium. Descriptive studies, life cycle, experimental and manipulative studies, and biochemical and molecular studies are presented. The influence of environmental factors, and toxic pollutants, are reviewed as well as studies on the pathology of Echinoparyphium.

Keywords

Biology Echinoparyphium Echinostomatidae Trematoda 

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© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesEast StroudsburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyLafayette CollegeEastonUSA

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