Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 359–368 | Cite as

New philometrids (Nematoda, Philometridae) from head tissues of two serranid fishes (Epinephelus morio and Mycteroperca microlepis) off Florida, northern Gulf of Mexico

  • František Moravec
  • Micah Bakenhaster
  • Emma Josefina Fajer-Avila


A new species of nematode, Philometra morii sp. nov. (Philometridae), is described from males and gravid females collected from the mouth cavity of the red grouper, Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes) (Serranidae, Perciformes), from the northen Gulf of Mexico, off Florida, USA. The new species is characterized mainly by the length of spicules (84–90 and 72–87 μm) and the length (54 μm) and structure of the gubernaculum in the male, and by the presence of three large oesophageal teeth protruding from the mouth, the number and arrangement of small cephalic papillae (8 papillae in 4 pairs of external circle and 6 single papillae of internal circle), the length (1.09–1.50 mm) and structure of the oesophagus and two large papilla-like caudal projections, and by the length of their bodies (19.34–30.07 mm). Philometra morii is the third species of this genus reported from E. morio in the Gulf of Mexico, differing from the two previously described species, in addition to morphological features, by the site of infection in this host (mouth cavity and sinuses vs oculo-orbits or gonads). From the same region (northern Gulf of Mexico, off Florida), gravid females of Philometra Costa, 1845, morphologically and biometrically similar to those of P. morii, were found in the subcutaneous tissues and sinuses of the head of another serranid fish (gag), Mycteroperca microlepis (Good et Bean). Although their conspecificity with P. morii cannot be excluded, they have been designated as Philometra sp. until conspecific males are discovered and described. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination (latter used only for females), both these forms are described.


Parasitic nematode Philometra marine fish Epinephelus Mycteroperca Gulf of Mexico Florida 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bullock L.H., Smith G.B. 1991. Seabasses (Pisces: Serranidae). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, 8, 1–243.Google Scholar
  2. Caspeta-Mandujano J.M., Granados Ramírez J.G., Peralta-Rodríguez J.L. 2009. A new philometrid species (Nematoda) from the freshwater fish Cichlasoma istlanum (Jordan and Snyder, 1899) (Cichlidae) in Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, 95, 403–406. DOI: 10.1645/GE-1768.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Froese R., Pauly D. (Eds.) 2010. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication,, version April/2010.
  4. Heemstra P.C., Anderson W.D., Jr., Lobel P.S. 2002. Groupers (seabasses, creolefish, coney, hinds, hamlets, anthiines, and soapfishes). In: (Ed. K.E. Carpenter) The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 2: Bony fishes part 1 (Acipenseridae to Grammatidae). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp. 1308–1369.Google Scholar
  5. Moravec F. 1994. Parasitic nematodes of freshwater fishes of Europe. Academia and Kluwer Academic Publishers, Prague and Dordrecht, Boston, London, 473 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Moravec F. 2006. Dracunculoid and anguillicoloid nematodes parasitic in vertebrates. Academia, Prague, 634 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Moravec F., Bakenhaster M. 2010a. Philometrid nematodes infecting fishes from the Everglades National Park, Florida, USA, with description of two new species. Folia Parasitologica, 57, 213–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Moravec F., Bakenhaster M. 2010b. A new species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the sand perch Diplectrum formosum (Serranidae) off Florida, northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, 96, 987–992. DOI: 10.1645/GE-2487.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Moravec F., Charo-Karisa H., Jirků M. 2009c. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya, including two new species of Philometra and erection of Afrophilometra gen. n. Folia Parasitologica, 56, 41–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Moravec F., Crosby M.D., de Buron I., González-Solís D., Roumillat W.A. 2008a. Three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from centrarchid fishes in the USA. Journal of Parasitology, 94, 1103–1113. DOI: 10.1645/GE-1523.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Moravec F., de Buron I. 2009a. New data on three gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from estuarine fishes in South Carolina, USA. Acta Parasitologica, 54, 244–252. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-009-0030-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moravec F., de Buron I. 2009b. Two new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off South Carolina. Journal of Parasitology, 95, 722–727. DOI: 10.1645/GE-1866.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Moravec F., de Buron I., Baker T.G., González-Solís D. 2008b. Some gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philome tridae) from offshore fishes of South Carolina and Georgia, USA, including Philometra charlestonensis sp. nov. from the scamp Mycteroperca phenax. Acta Parasitologica, 53, 382–391. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-008-0049-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moravec F., Dyková I., de Buron I. 2009a. Female morphology of Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of the striped sea-bass Morone saxatilis (Moronidae, Perciformes) in the USA. Folia Parasitologica, 56, 64–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Moravec F., Fajer-Avila E.J., Bakenhaster M. 2009b. Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ovary of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the coast of Florida, USA. Journal of Helminthology, 84, 49–54. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X09990290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Moravec F., Gaglio G., Panebianco A., Giannetto S. 2008c. Two species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from sparid fishes (porgies) off Sicily, Italy, including Philometra obladae sp. in. from the body cavity of Oblada melanura (Sparidae). Parasitology Research, 104, 55–61. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-1158-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Moravec F., Justine J.-L. 2008. Some philometrid nematodes (Philometridae), including four new species of Philometra, from marine fishes off New Caledonia. Acta Parasitologica, 53, 369–381. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-008-0050-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moravec F., Justine J.-L. 2009. New data on dracunculoid nematodes from fishes off New Caledonia, including four new species of Philometra (Philometridae) and Ichthyofilaria (Guyanemidae). Folia Parasitologica, 56, 129–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Moravec F., Lorber J., Konečný R. 2007. Two new species of parasitic nematodes from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Pisces) off the Maldive Islands. Journal of Parasitology, 93, 171–178. DOI: 10.1645/GE-965R.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Moravec F., Rohde K. 1992. Three species of nematodes of the superfamily Dracunculoidea from Australian fishes. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovacae, 56, 187–195.Google Scholar
  21. Moravec F., Salgado-Maldonado G. 2007. A new species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from the gonads of the rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis (Osteichthyes) from the southern Gulf of Mexico. Acta Parasitologica, 52, 376–381. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-007-0044-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moravec F., Vidal-Martínez V.M., Aguirre-Macedo L. 1995. Philometra margolisi n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the gonads of the red grouper, Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae), in Mexico. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52(Suppl. 1), 161–165. DOI: 10.1139/f95-016.Google Scholar
  23. Moravec F., Vidal-Martínez V.M., Aguirre-Macedo M.L., González-Solís D. 2001. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Philometra salgadoi Vidal-Martínez et al., 1995 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ocular cavity of the marine fish Epinephelus morio in Mexico. Parasitology Research, 87, 526–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Moravec F., Vidal-Martínez V.M., Vargas-Vázquez J., Vivas-Rodríguez C., González-Solís D., Mendoza-Franco E., Simá-Alvarez R., Güemez-Ricalde J. 1997. Helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) of the Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Mexico. Folia Parasitologica, 44, 255–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. National Marine Fisheries Service 2010. Fisheries Statistics Division (ST1),, February 2010.
  26. Petter A.-J., RadujkoviĆ B.M. 1989. Parasites des poissons marins du Montenegro: Nematodes. Acta Adriatica, 30, 195–236.Google Scholar
  27. Quiazon K.M.A., Yoshinaga T., Ogawa K. 2008a. Taxonomical study into two new species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) previously identified as Philometra lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935). Folia Parasitologica, 55, 29–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Quiazon K.M.A., Yoshinaga T., Ogawa K. 2008b. Philometra sawara sp. n. and a redescription of Philometra sciaenae Yamaguti, 1941 and Philometra nemipteri Luo, 2001 (Nematoda: Philometridae): a morphological and molecular approach. Folia Parasitologica, 55, 277–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rasheed S. 1963. A revision of the genus Philometra Costa, 1845. Journal of Helminthology, 37, 89–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sakaguchi S., Yamagata Y., Sako H. 1987. Reidentification of Philometra parasitic on the Red Sea bream. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Aquaculture, 12, 69–72.Google Scholar
  31. Santos C.P., Moravec F. 2009. Tissue-dwelling philometrid nematodes of the fish Arapaima gigas in Brazil. Journal of Helminthology, 83, 295–301. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X09224163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Vasilkov G.V. 1967. Pathogenicity and symptoms of philometroidosis in carp. Byuletin Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Eksperimentalnoy Veterinarii, 20, 45–46 (In Russian).Google Scholar
  33. Vidal-Martínez V.M., Aguirre-Macedo M.L., Moravec F. 1995. Philometra (Ranjhinema) salgadoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ocular cavity of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, 81, 763–766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Vismanis K.O., Nikulina V.N. 1968. On taxonomic status of Philometra sanguinea (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda, Dracunculidae), the causative agent of philometrosis in crucian carps. Parazitologiya, 2, 514–518 (In Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • František Moravec
    • 1
  • Micah Bakenhaster
    • 2
  • Emma Josefina Fajer-Avila
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologyBiology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicČeskě BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Fish and Wildlife Research InstituteFlorida Fish and Wildlife Conservation CommissionSt. PetersburgUSA
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y DesarrolloA. C., Unidad Mazatlán en Acuicultura y Manejo AmbientalMazatlán, SinaloaMexico

Personalised recommendations