Heterocotyle tokoloshei sp. nov. (Monogenea, Monocotylidae) from the gills of Dasyatis brevicaudata (Dasyatidae) kept in captivity at Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa: Description and notes on treatment
- 85 Downloads
Heterocotyle tokoloshei sp. nov. is described from the gills of a single Short-tail stingray, Dasyatis brevicaudata, kept in captivity at the Two Oceans Aquarium in Cape Town, South Africa. The stingray exhibited laboured gill ventilation and deteriorating health on exhibit and was removed to the quarantine area for parasitological study and treatment. A 12 h bath treatment of praziquantel at 20mg/l, pre-dissolved in ethanol, removed 3084 parasites from the gills of the ray. However, the presence of a large number of eggs 24 h post-treatment indicated that viable egg laying adults remained on the gills and that the treatment was not 100% effective. Praziquantel was subsequently administered orally by intubation to the same ray at 150 mg/kg under anaesthetic (2-phenoxyethanol at 0.15 ml/l for approximately 1 h), which resulted in the removal of approximately 392 000 parasites from the gills 12 h post-oral treatment. Twenty-four h post-oral treatment, 3383 worms, but no eggs were recovered. No worms or eggs were recovered 48 h to 10 days post-oral treatment. The ray died approximately 30 days after the completion of the treatment. Heterocotyle tokoloshei sp. nov. is the first Heterocotyle species described from South Africa and represents the first record of a pathogenic Heterocotyle species. The new species can be distinguished from the other 16 species in the genus by the distal region of the male copulatory organ which has distinct small spines and by the morphology of the male copulatory organ accessory piece. Eggs of H. tokoloshei sp. nov. are laid singly and hatch spontaneously between 5 and 8 days at 18°C.
KeywordsMonogenea Monocotylidae Heterocotyle stingrays praziquantel treatment public aquarium South Africa
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chisholm L.A., Whittington I.D. 1996. A revision of Heterocotyle (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) with a description of Heterocotyle capricornensis n. sp. from Himantura fai (Dasyatididae) from Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. International Journal for Parasitology, 26, 1169–1190. DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7519(96)00113-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hirazawa N., Mitsuboshi T., Hirata T., Shirasu K. 2004. Susceptibility of spotted halibut Verasper variegatus (Pleuronectidae) to infection by the monogenean Neobenedenia girellae (Capsalidae) and oral therapy trials using praziquantel. Aquaculture, 238, 83–95. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.05.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Janse M., Borgsteede F.H.M. 2003. Praziquantel treatment of captive white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) infested with monogenean trematodes. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 23, 152–156.Google Scholar
- Kroupova H., Machova J., Svobodova Z. 2005. Nitrite influence of fish: a review. Veterinary Medicine-Czech, 50, 461–471.Google Scholar
- Vaughan D.B., Chisholm L.A. 2009. Three Dendromonocotyle species (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) reported from captive rays, including D. lotteri sp. n. from Himantura gerrardi (Elasmobranchii: Dasyatidae) in the public aquarium at the Atlantis resort, Dubai. Folia Parasitologica, 56, 99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vaughan D., Chisholm L., Christison K. 2008a. Overview of South African Dendromonocotyle (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), with descriptions of 2 new species from stingrays (Dasyatidae) kept in public aquaria. Zootaxa, 1826, 26–44.Google Scholar
- Whittington I.D., Chisholm L.A. 2008. Diseases caused by Monogenea. In: (Eds. J.C. Eiras, H. Segner, T. Wahlii and B.G. Kapoor) Fish Diseases. Science Publishers Inc., New Hampshire, USA, 683–816.Google Scholar
- Williams R.E., Ernst I., Chambers C.B., Whittington I.D. 2007. Efficacy of orally administered praziquantel against Zeuxapta seriolae and Benedenia seriolae (Monogenea) in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 77, 199–205. DOI: 10.3354/dao01824.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar