Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 20–28 | Cite as

Introgression of distant mitochondria into the genome of Gyrodactylus salaris: Nuclear and mitochondrial markers are necessary to identify parasite strains

  • Marek S. Ziętara
  • Magdalena Rokicka
  • Stojmir Stojanovski
  • Jaakko Lumme


Novel combinations of mitochondrial DNA (CO1) and internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) were detected among Gyrodactylus parasites on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)), and Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica (Karaman)) from salmonid farms in Poland and Macedonia. Some clones differed from standard ITS only by ≤ 4 nucleotides, but they belonged to a mtDNA clade that differed from the Northern European lineages of G. salaris by d MCL = 0.266 ± 0.108 (maximum composite likelihood distance). The divergence of d MCL = 0.013 ± 0.005 within the alien mtDNA clade suggested introgression from an unknown maternal ancestor into the G. salaris Malmberg genome 137 to 57 kyr ago (or, less probably, repeated introgression). A comparable modern hybrid was detected based on permanently heterozygous ITS (28 bp/1264 = 2.2%) in a clone that is widespread throughout Finnish rainbow trout farms. This was a F1 hybrid of maternal G. pomeraniae Kuusela, Ziętara et Lumme (on roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.)) and G. lavareti Malmberg (on whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.)). The mtDNA of the parental species differed by d MCL = 0.290 ± 0.130. The observations emphasize that both nuclear and maternally-inherited DNA markers are necessary to characterize sexually-produced lineages or clones of Gyrodactylus. The hybridization events demonstrated predict incongruence of mitochondrial vs. nuclear gene trees, i.e., reticulate evolution in species trees.


Hybrid speciation ITS of nrDNA mitochondrial phylogeny barcoding 


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Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek S. Ziętara
    • 1
    • 2
  • Magdalena Rokicka
    • 1
  • Stojmir Stojanovski
    • 3
  • Jaakko Lumme
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Comparative BiochemistryGdańsk University Biological StationGdaśk-SobieszewoPoland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  3. 3.Department of Fish ParasitologyHydrobiological InstituteOhridMacedonia

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