Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 263–268 | Cite as

Strongyloid nematodes in the caeca of donkeys in Henan Province, China

  • Yanzhen Bu
  • Hongxing Niu
  • Robin B. Gasser
  • Ian Beveridge
  • Luping Zhang


Thirty-four donkeys from Henan Province, China, were examined at necropsy for strongyloid nematodes in the caecum (February 2006 to January 2007). Twenty-two species, including 18 Cyathostominae (small strongyles) and 4 Strongylinae (large strongyles), were identified. The five most prevalent Cyathostominae were Cylicocyclus nassatus (73.5%), Coronocyclus labratus (70.6%), Coronocyclus labiatus (67.6%), Cyathostomum tetracanthum (61.8%) and Coronocyclus coronatus (52.9%), accounting for 70.2% of all species identified; C. labratus (124.2 ± 256.4), Cyathostomum tetracanthum (96.4 ± 210.5) and Cylicocyclus nassatus (80.9 ± 117.1) had the greatest mean abundance, whereas Strongylus vulgaris was the most prevalent (88.2%) of the Strongylinae and had the highest mean abundance (34.9 ± 37.8). The numbers of species per donkey ranged from 1 to 15 (with a median of 7.1). Only a small percentage (5.9%) of donkeys were infected by a single species, whereas the other donkeys had infections with multiple species.


Donkeys strongyloid nematodes caecum prevalence abundance intensity China 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott E.M. 1998a. Larval cyathostomosis — part 1 — the disease, its diagnosis and treatment. Equine Practice, 20, 6–7.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott E.M. 1998b. Larval cyathostomosis. Part 2. Prevention. Equine Practice, 20, 6–8.Google Scholar
  3. Anjos D.H.S., Rodrigues M.L.A. 2006. Diversity of the infracommunities of strongylid nematodes in the ventral colon of Equus caballus from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Veterinarty Parasitology, 136, 251–257. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.05.070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bucknell D.G., Gasser R.B., Beveridge I. 1995. The prevalence and epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Victoria, Australia. International Journal for Parasitology, 25, 711–724. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7519 (94) 00214-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bucknell D.G., Hoste H., Gasser R.B., Beveridge I. 1996. The structure of the community of strongyloid nematodes of domestic equids. Journal of Helminthology, 70, 185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bush A.O., Lafferty K.D., Lotz J.M., Shostak A.W. 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Journal of Parasitology, 83, 575–583. DOI: 10.2307/3284227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman M.R., Kearney M.T., Klei T.R. 2003. Equine cyathostome population: accuracy of species composition estimations. Veterinary Parasitology, 116, 15–21. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00239-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collobert-Laugier C., Hoste H., Sevin C., Dorchies P. 2002. Prevalence, abundance and site distribution of equine small strongyles in Normandy, France. Veterinary Parasitology, 110, 77–83. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00328-X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drudge J.H., Lyons E.T., Szanto J. 1966. Pathogenesis of migrating stages of helminths with special reference to Strongylus vulgaris. In: (Ed. E.J.L. Soulsby) Biology of Parasites. Academic Press, New York and London, 199–214.Google Scholar
  10. Duncan J.L. 1973. The life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology of Strongylus vulgaris in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 5, 20–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eysker M., Pandey V.S. 1989. Small strongyle infections in donkeys from the highveld in Zimbabwe. Veterinary Parasitology, 30, 345–349. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017(89)90104-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feseha G.A., Mohammed A., Yilma J.M. 1991. Vermicular endoparasitism in donkeys of Debre-Zeit and Menagesha, Ethiopia: Strategic treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole. In: (Eds. D.F. Fielding and R.A. Pearson) Proc. Colloq. on Donkeys, Mules and Horses in Tropical Agricultural Development, 3–6 September 1990. Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK, 156–166.Google Scholar
  13. Gasser R.B., Hung G.C., Chilton N.B., Beveridge I. 2004. Advances in developing molecular-diagnostic tools for strongyloid nematodes of equids: fundamental and applied implications. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 18, 3–16. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2003.10.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gawor J.J. 1995. The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland. Veterinary Parasitology, 58, 99–108. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017 (94) 00698-C.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Georgi J.R. 1982. Parasitologia Veterinária. 3rd ed. Interamericana, Rio de Janeiro, 353 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Giles C.J., Urquhart K.A., Longstaffe J.A. 1985. Larval cyathostomiasis (immature Trichonema-induced enteropathy): a report of 15 clinical cases. Equine Veterinary Journal, 17, 196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Graber M. 1970. Helminthes et helminthioses des équidés (anes et chevaux) de la République du Tchad. Revue D’élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 23, 207–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Herd R.P. 1990a. The changing world of worms: the rise of the cyathostomes and the decline of Strongylus vulgaris. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 12, 732–734.Google Scholar
  19. Herd R.P. 1990b. Equine parasite control — solutions to anthelmintic associated problems. Equine Veterinary Education, 2, 86–91.Google Scholar
  20. Hoste H., LeFrileux Y., Pommaret A., Gruner L., VanQuackebeke E., Koch C. 1999. Importance du parasitisme par des strongles gastro-intestinaux chez les chèvres laitières dans le Sud Est de la France. INRA Productions Animales, 12, 377–389.Google Scholar
  21. Khallaayoune K. 1991. Benefit of a strategic deworming programme in working donkeys in Morocco. In: (Eds. D.F. Fielding and R.A Pearson) Proc. Colloq. on Donkeys, Mules and Horses in Tropical Agricultural Development, 3–6 September 1990. Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK, 174–180.Google Scholar
  22. Klei T.R., French D.D. 1998. Small strongyles: an emerging parasite problem for horses. Equine Practice, 20, 26–30.Google Scholar
  23. Krecek R.C., Guthrie A.J. 1999. Alternative approaches to control of cyathostomes: an African perspective. Veterinary Parasitology, 85, 151–162. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00095-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krecek R.C., Reinecke R.K., Horak I.G. 1989. Internal parasites of horses on mixed grassveld and Busveld in Transvaal Republic of South Africa. Veterinary Parasitology, 34, 135–143. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017(89)90173-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. K’ung F.Y., Yang N.H. 1963. Strongylid parasites of donkeys in Peking. II. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 15, 61–67 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  26. K’ung F.Y., Ye Q.E., Liu G.Y. 1959. Strongylid parasites of donkeys in Peking. I. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 11, 29–36 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  27. Kuzmina T.A., Kuzmin Y.I. 2008. The community of strongylids (Nematoda: Strongylida) of working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Ukraine. Vestnik Zoologii, 42, 18–23. DOI: 10.2478/v10058-008-0004-4.Google Scholar
  28. Lichtenfels J.R. 1975. Helminths of domestic equids. Illustrated keys to genera and species with emphasise on North America forms. Proceedings of the Helmintological Society of Washington, 42 (special issue), 1–92.Google Scholar
  29. Lichtenfels J.R., Karchenko U.A., Krecek R.C., Gibbons L.M. 1998. An annoted checklist by genus and species of 93 species level names for 51 recognized species of small strongyles (Nematoda: Strongylidae, Cyathostominae) of horses, asses and zebras of the world. Veterinary Parasitology, 79, 65–79. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(98)00149-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Love S. 1992. Parasite-associated equine diarrhea. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 14, 642–646.Google Scholar
  31. Love S., Murphy D., Mellor D. 1999. Pathogenicity of cyathostome infection. Veterinary Parasitology, 85, 113–121. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00092-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mair T.S. 1994. Outbreak of larval cyathostomiasis among a group of yearling and two-year-old horses. Veterinary Record, 135, 598–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Malan F.S., Reinecke R.K., Scialdo-Krecek R.C. 1982. Anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole in donkeys assessed by the non-parametric method. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 53, 185–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Matthee S., Krecek R.C., Milne S.A. 2000. Prevalence and biodiversity of helminth parasites in donkeys from South Africa. Journal of Parasitology, 86, 756–762. DOI: 10.1645/0022-3395(2000)086[0756PABOHP]2.0.CO;2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McCraw B.M., Slocombe J.O.D. 1976. Strongylus vulgaris in the horse: a review. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 17, 150–157.Google Scholar
  36. Mfitilodze M.W., Hutchinson G.W. 1990. Prevalence and abundance of equine strongyles (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) in tropical Australia. Journal of Parasitology, 76, 487–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Murphy D., Love S. 1997. The pathogenic effects of experimental cyathostome infections in ponies. Veterinary Parasitology, 70, 99–110. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(96)01153-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ogbourne C.P. 1975. Epidemiological studies on horses infected with nematodes of the family Trichonematidae (Witenberg, 1925). International Journal for Parasitology, 5, 667–672. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7519(75)90067-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ogbourne C.P. 1978. Pathogenesis of Cyathostome (Trichonema) Infection of the Horse. A review. Commonwealth Institution of Helminthology, Miscellaneous Publication No. 5, 1–25.Google Scholar
  40. Ogbourne C.P., Duncan J.L. 1985. Strongylus vulgaris in the Horse: Its Biology and Veterinary Importance. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, London, 1–69.Google Scholar
  41. Oliveira C.L., Silva A.V.M., Santos H.A., Costa H.M.A. 1994. Cyathostominae parasites to Equus asinus in some Brazilian States. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 46, 51–63.Google Scholar
  42. Owen J., Slocombe D. 1985. Pathogenesis of helminths in equines. Veterinary Parasitology, 18, 139–153. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017(85)90063-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pandey V.S. 1980. Seasonal prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris in the anterior mesenteric artery of the donkey in Morocco. Veterinary Parasitology, 7, 357–362. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017 (80) 90056-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pandey V.S., Eysker M. 1991. Internal parasites of equines in Zimbabwe. In: (Eds. D.F. Fielding and R.A. Pearson) Proc. Colloq. on Donkeys, Mules and Horses in Tropical Agricultural Development, 3–6 September 1990. Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK, 167–173.Google Scholar
  45. Pereira J.R., Vianna S.S.S. 2006. Gastrointestinal parasitic worms in equines in the Paraíba Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 140, 289–295. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.03.036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reilly G., Cassidy J.P., Taylor S.M. 1993. Two fatal cases of diarrhoea in horses associated with larvae of the small strongyles. Veterinary Record, 132, 267–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Reinemeyer C.R. 1986. Small strongyles: recent advances. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice, 2, 281–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Reinemeyer C.R. 1992. Equine small strongyles: unanswered questions. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 14, 816–819.Google Scholar
  49. Reinemeyer C.R., Smith S.A., Gabel A.A., Herd R.P. 1984. The prevalence and intensity of internal parasites of horses in the U.S.A. Veterinary Parasitology, 15, 75–83. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4017 (84) 90112-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Silva A.V.M., Costa H.M.A., Santos H.A., Carvalho R.O. 1999. Cyathostominae (Nematoda) parasites of Equus caballus in some Brazilian states. Veterinary Parasitology, 86, 15–21. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(99)00078-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tolliver S.C., Lyons E.T., Drudge J.H. 1985. Species of small strongyles and other internal parasites recovered from donkeys at necropsy in Kentucky. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 52, 260–265.Google Scholar
  52. Uhlinger C.A. 1991. Equine small strongyles: epidemiology, pathology, and control. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 13, 863–869.Google Scholar
  53. Vercruysse J., Harris E.A., Kaboret Y.Y., Pangui L.J., Gibson D.I. 1986. Gastro-intestinal helminthes of donkeys in Burkina Faso. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 72, 821–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wells D., Krecek R.C., Wells M., Guthrie A.J., Lourens J.C. 1998. Helminth levels of working donkeys kept under different management systems in the Moretele 1 district of the North-West Province, South Africa. Veterinary Parasitology, 77, 163–177. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017-98.00105-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang L.P., K’ung F.Y. 2002. Parasitc Nematodes from Equus spp. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, 175 pp. (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  56. Zhou W.L. 1990. The investigation of internal parasites of horses, donkeys and mules in Sichuan Province. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science, 20, 14–17 (In Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanzhen Bu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongxing Niu
    • 2
  • Robin B. Gasser
    • 3
  • Ian Beveridge
    • 3
  • Luping Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Life SciencesHebei Normal UniversityShijiazhuangP. R. China
  2. 2.College of Life ScienceHenan Normal UniversityXinxiangP. R. China
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary ScienceThe University of MelbourneWerribeeAustralia

Personalised recommendations