Acta Parasitologica

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 244–252 | Cite as

New data on three gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from estuarine fishes in South Carolina, USA

  • František Moravec
  • Isaure de Buron


The following three gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded from offshore perciform fishes in South Carolina, USA: Philometra carolinensis Moravec, de Buron et Roumillat, 2006 from the southern kingfish Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae) (new host record), Philometra floridensis Moravec, Fajer-Avila et Bakenhaster, 2009 from the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae), and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) (Pomatomidae). Findings of the first two species represent the second records since their original descriptions and P. floridensis was for the first time recorded from South Carolina estuaries. Detailed study of these nematode species, using both light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealed the presence of minute caudal projections in the gravid female of P. carolinensis and four pairs of caudal papillae in the conspecific male; the cephalic and caudal ends of this species were for the first time examined by SEM. The related species P. carolinensis and P. floridensis, both parasitizing sciaenid fishes, can be distinguished from each other mainly by the presence/absence of oesophageal teeth, lengths of spicules and body lengths of gravid females. The morphology of North American specimens of P. saltatrix was found to be identical with that of specimens from Europe, thus confirming their conspecificity.


Parasitic nematode Philometra fish Menticirrhus Sciaenops Pomatomus estuary South Carolina USA 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bryan T.P., Tsoi L.C., de Buron I. 2008. Development of the philometrids Philometra overstreeti and Philometroides paralichthydis in the experimentally infected copepod Oithona colcarva. Folia Parasitologica, 55, 313–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cárdenas M.Q., Moravec F., Kohn A. 2009. First record of Philometra katsuwoni (Nematoda, Philometridae), a parasite of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (Perciformes, Scombridae), off South American Atlantic coast. Biota Neotropica, in press.Google Scholar
  3. Clarke L.M., Dove A.D.M., Conover D.O. 2006. Prevalence, intensity, and effect of a nematode (Philometra saltatrix) in the ovaries of bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Fishery Bulletin, 104, 118–124.Google Scholar
  4. Froese R., Pauly D. (Eds.). 2009. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication,, February/2009.
  5. González-Solís D., Moravec F., Tuz Paredes V.M. 2007. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (Osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, 93, 1132–1135. DOI: 10.1645/GE-1238R.1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheung P.J., Nigrelli R.F., Ruggieri G.D. 1984. Philometra saltatrix infecting the heart of the 0-class bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (L.), from the New York coast. In: S.F. Snieszko commem oration fish disease workshop. Joint Workshop of Fish Health Section, AFS, and Midwest Disease Group, Little Rock, AR, p. 27.Google Scholar
  7. Linton E. 1901. Parasites of fishes of the Woods Hole Region. Bulletin of the U.S. Fisheries Commission 1899, 441–481.Google Scholar
  8. Linton E. 1907. Notes on parasites of Bermuda fishes. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, 33, 85–126.Google Scholar
  9. Martínez J.J., Ventosa L. 1982. Philometra lateolabracis (Nematoda: Philometridae), parásito de la biajaiba (Lutjanus synagris) (Osteichthyes: Lutjanidae) de Cuba. Poeyana, 248, 1–6.Google Scholar
  10. Moravec F. 2006. Dracunculoid and anguillicoloid nematodes parasitic in vertebrates. Academia, Prague, 634 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Moravec F., de Buron 2009. Two new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off South Carolina. Journal of Parasitology, in press.Google Scholar
  12. Moravec F., de Buron I. 2006. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in the estuaries of South Carolina, USA. Folia Parasitologica, 53, 139–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Moravec F., de Buron I., Baker T.G., González-Solís D. 2008a. Some gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from offshore fishes of South Carolina and Georgia, USA, including Philometra charlestonensis sp. nov. from the scamp Mycteroperca phenax. Acta Parasitologica, 53, 382–391. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-008-0049-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moravec F., de Buron I., Roumillat W.A. 2006. Two new species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in the perciform fish Cynoscion nebulosus (Sciaenidae) in the estuaries of South Carolina, USA. Folia Parasitologica, 53, 63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Moravec F., Fajer-Avila E.J., Bakenhaster M. 2009. Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ovary of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off Florida, USA. Journal of Helminthology, in press.Google Scholar
  16. Moravec F., Genc E. 2004. Redescription of three Philometra spp. (Nematoda, Philometridae) from the gonads of marine perciform fishes of Iskenderun Bay (North-East Mediterranean), Turkey. Acta Parasitologica, 49, 31–40.Google Scholar
  17. Moravec F., Magi M., Macchioni F. 2008b. Redescription of the gonad-infecting nematode Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 (Philometridae) based on specimens from the type host Pomatomus saltatrix (L.) (Osteichthyes) from the Tuscan Sea, Italy. Folia Parasitologica, 55, 219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Moravec F., Montoya-Mendoza J., Salgado-Maldonado G. 2008c. A new genus and species of philometrid (Nematoda) from the subcutaneous tissue of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Osteichthyes), from the southern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, 94, 1346–1350. DOI: 10.1645/GE-1577.1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moravec F., Salgado-Maldonado G. 2007. A new species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from the gonads of the rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis (Osteichthyes) from the southern Gulf of Mexico. Acta Parasitologica, 52, 376–381. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-007-0044-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moravec F., Santana-Piñeros A.M., González-Solís D., Torres-Huerta A.M. 2007. A new species of Spirophilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the yellowfin snook Centropomus robalito (Osteichthyes) in southern Mexico. Folia Parasitologica, 54, 215–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Moravec F., Vidal-Martínez V.M., Aguirre-Macedo M.L. 1995. Philometra margolisi n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the gonads of the red grouper, Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae), in Mexico. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52(Suppl. 1), 161–165.Google Scholar
  22. Nelson J.S., Crossman E.J., Espinoza-Pérez H., Findlay L.T., Gilbert C.R., Lea R.N., Williams J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland, 386 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Perez G.R., Roumillat W.A., Levesque E.M., Connors V.A., de Buron I. 2009. Synchronization of occurrence of the ovarian philometrid, Philometra carolinensis, with the spawning season of its fish host, the spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus. Parasitology Research, 104, 1079–1085. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-1291-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petter A.-J., Radujković B.M. 1989. Parasites des poissons marins du Montenegro: Nematodes. Acta Adriatica, 30, 195–236.Google Scholar
  25. Quiazon K.M.A., Yoshinaga T., Ogawa K. 2008a. Philometra sawara sp. n. and a redescription of Philometra sciaenae Yamaguti, 1941 and Philometra nemipteri Luo, 2001 (Nematoda: Philometridae): a morphological and molecular approach. Folia Parasitologica, 55, 277–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Quiazon K.M.A., Yoshinaga T., Ogawa K. 2008b. Taxonomical study into two new species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) previously identified as Philometra lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935). Folia Parasitologica, 55, 29–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramachandran P. 1973. Philometra saltatrix sp. n., infecting the gonads of the common bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (L.) of the New England coast of the United States. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 191, 325–328.Google Scholar
  28. Rees G. 1970. Some helminth parasites of fishes of Bermuda and an account of the attachment organ of Alcicornis carangis Mac-Callum, 1917 (Digenea: Bucephalidae). Parasitology, 60, 195–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rego A.A., Vicente J.J., Santos C.P., Wekid R.M. 1983. Parasitas de anchovas, Pomatomus saltatrix (L.) do Rio de Janeiro. Ciência e Cultura, 35, 1329–1336.Google Scholar
  30. Sokolov S.G., Kazakov B.E. 2007. Redescription of the male of Philometra rischta Skrjabin, 1923 (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) and notes on morphology of the female of this species. Zoologiya Bespozvonochnykh, 4, 151–160 (In Russian, Engl. abstract).Google Scholar
  31. Sokolov S.G., Kazakov B.E. 2008. On morphology and taxonomic status of some species of the genus Philometroides (Nematoda, Philometridae). Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal, 87, 1420–1424. (In Russian, Engl. abstract).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologyBiology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of BiologyCollege of CharlestonCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations