Acta Parasitologica

, 54:78 | Cite as

Historical account of the two family-group names in use for the single accepted family comprising the “fish blood flukes”

  • Stephen A. Bullard
  • Kirsten Jensen
  • Robin M. Overstreet


The family-group name for the “fish blood flukes” is unstable, with both “Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912” and “Sanguinicolidae von Graff, 1907” in use for the single family. Although “Sanguinicolidae von Graff, 1907” (or. Graff, 1907.) has been a widely-accepted family-group name for the fish blood flukes subsequent to Yamaguti’s 1954 and 1958 synoptical publications (“Systema Helminthum”), a critical examination of the relevant literature, much of it published in German during 1900 through 1926, reveals that “Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912” is the earliest available family-group name for these flukes. The name Aporocotylidae, moreover, was in wide usage by alpha taxonomists before 1954 and by several authors between 1954 and the present time. We speculate that the recent long-standing uncertainty about the earliest available family-group name primarily stems from the (1) logistics of Ludwig von Graff’s tome published in 1904–1908, (2) bibliographic confusion between that work and another Graff work published in 1907 (both of which treat Sanguinicola but not Aporocotyle), (3) initial ambiguity regarding the phylogenetic relatedness of the first four aporocotylid species that were named, (4) lack of consensus on the status of Aporocotylidae and Sanguinicolidae and the genera included within them, and (5) misleading application of. Graff, 1907. to Sanguinicolidae by Poche in 1926, Fuhrmann in 1928, Yamaguti in 1954 and 1958, and subsequent review articles that treated fish blood flukes. Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, Article 8.3), “Sanguinicolidae” was not made available by Graff because he disclaimed the name in the same, and only, work wherein he used the name (ICZN, Article 8.3). Sanguinicolidae was first made available in 1926 by Poche, who referenced Graff’s 1907 work. Hence, “Poche, 1926” comprises the correct authority and date for that family-group name, not “von Graff, 1907” or “Graff, 1907”. Since we presently accept only a single family for all fish blood flukes and abide by the Principal of Priority (ICZN, Article 23), we herein regard Sanguinicolidae Poche, 1926 as a junior subjective synonym of Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912.


Aporocotylidae fish blood fluke Graff nomenclature Odhner Plehn Poche Sanguinicolidae 


  1. Bullard S.A., Jensen K. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae): Orchispirium heterovitellatum from Himantura imbricata in the Bay of Bengal and a new genus and species of Aporocotylidae from Dasyatis sabina in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Parasitology, in press.Google Scholar
  2. Bullard S.A., Overstreet R.M. 2003. Elaphrobates euzeti gen. and sp. n. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from snappers (Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Mexico. In: (Eds. C. Combes and J. Jourdane) Taxonomie, écologie et évolution des métazoaires parasites. Taxonomy, ecology and evolution of metazoan parasites. (Livre hommage à Louis Euzet). Tome 1. PUP Perpignan, France, 97–113.Google Scholar
  3. Bullard S.A., Overstreet R.M. 2004. Two new species of Cardicola (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) in drums (Sciaenidae) from Mississippi and Louisiana. Journal of Parasitology, 90, 128–136. DOI: 10.1645/GE-106R.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bullard S.A., Overstreet R.M. 2006. Psettarium anthicum sp. n. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from the heart of cobia Rachycentron canadum (Rachycentridae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Folia Parasitologica, 53, 117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bullard S.A., Overstreet R.M., Carlson J.K. 2006. Selachohemecus benzi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae) from the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Systematic Parasitology, 63, 143–154. DOI: 10.1007/s11230-005-9010-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bullard S.A., Snyder S.D., Jensen K., Overstreet R.M. 2008. New genus and species of Aporocotylidae (Digenea) from a basal actinopterygian, the American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, (Acipenseriformes: Polyodontidae) from the Mississippi Delta. Journal of Parasitology, 94, 487–495. DOI: 10.1645/GE-1323.1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng T.C. 1964. The Biology of Animal Parasites. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 727 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Chu J., Chu Ju., Lee Y., Youn M. 1992. Aporocotyle theragrae (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) from the blood vessel of Theragra chalcogramma. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 30, 255–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Combes C. 2001. Parasitism: The Ecology and Evolution of Intimate Interactions. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 728 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Dawes B. 1968. The Trematoda, with Special Reference to British and other European Forms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 644 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Doss M.A., Humphrey J.M. 1955. Supplement 3, Authors: A to I. In: Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. United States Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 459–970.Google Scholar
  12. Ejsmont L. 1926. Badania morfologiczne, systematyczne i rozwojowe nad gatunkami rodzaju Sanguinicola Plehn. (Morphologische, systematische und entwickelungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Arten des Genus Sanguinicola Plehn). Bulletin de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres, Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Naturelles, Sér. B, Sciences Naturelles (1925), 877–966 (In German).Google Scholar
  13. Fuhrmann O. 1928. Zweite Klasse des Cladus Plathelminthes: Trematoda. Handbuch der Zoologie (Kükenthal u. Krumbach), v. 2, 3 Lief., Teil 2. Bogen 1–8, p. 1–128, figs. 1–171 (continued in 1930).Google Scholar
  14. Fuhrmann O. 1930. Idem. [concluded from 1928] Handbuch der Zoologie (Kükenthal u. Krumbach), v. 2, 7 Lief., Teil 2. Bogen 92-16, 18 Jan., p. 129–140, figs. 172–175.Google Scholar
  15. Ginetsinskaya T.A. 1961. The life cycles of fish helminths and the biology of their larval stages. In: (Eds. V.A. Dogiel, G.K. Petrushevski and Yu.I. Polyanski) Parasitology of Fishes. Translation Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh; reprint TFH Publications, Jersey City, New Jersey, 140–179.Google Scholar
  16. Graff L. von. 1904–1908. Turbellaria, Bd. [volume] 4. Pages 1733–2599 in H.G. Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des Tier-Reichs, wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. C.F. Winter’sche Verlagshandlung, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  17. Graff L. von. 1907. Das Schmarotzertum im Tierreich und seine Bedeutung für die Artbildung. Verlag von Quelle and Meyer, Leipzig, 132 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Hyman L.H. 1951. The Invertebrates: Platyhelminthes and Rhynchocoela, the Acoelomate Bilateria. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 550 pp.Google Scholar
  19. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th ed. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK, 306 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Joyeux C.E. 1924. Les trematodes sanguicoles. Annales de Parasitologie, 2, 615–1619.Google Scholar
  21. La Rue G.R. 1926. Studies on the trematode family Strigeidae (Holostomidae) No. III. Relationships. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 45, 265–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Linton E. 1910. Helminth fauna of the Dry Tortugas. II. Trematodes. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 133, 11–98.Google Scholar
  23. Manter H.W. 1940. Digenetic trematodes of fishes from the Galapagos Islands and the neighboring Pacific. Reports of the Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition, 2, 329–497.Google Scholar
  24. Manter H.W. 1954. Some digenetic trematodes from fishes of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 82, 475–568.Google Scholar
  25. McIntosh A. 1934. A new blood trematode, Paradeontacylix sanguinicoloides n. g., n. sp., from Seriola lalandi with a key to the species of the family Aporocotylidae. Parasitology, 26, 463–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McLaren D.J., Hockley D.J. 1977. Blood flukes have a double outer membrane. Nature, 269, 147–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nahhas F.M., Short R.B. 1965. Digenetic trematodes of marine fishes from Apalachee Bay, Gulf of Mexico. Tulane Studies on Zoology, 12, 39–50.Google Scholar
  28. Nobel E.R., Nobel G.A. 1971. Parasitology. The Biology of Animal Parasites. 3rd ed. Lea and Febriger, Philadelphia, 617 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Nobel E.R., Nobel G.A., Schad G.A., MacInnes A.J. 1989. Parasitology. The Biology of Animal Parasites. 6th ed. Lea and Febriger, Philadelphia, 574 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Odhner T. 1900. Aporocotyle simplex n. g. n. sp., ein neuer Typus von ektoparasitischen Trematoden. Zentralblatt für Bakteriogie, Parasitenkunde, und Infektions krankheiten, 72, 62–66.Google Scholar
  31. Odhner T. 1911. Sanguinicola M. PlehnCein digenetischer Trematode! Mit einem Nachtrag über ältere Beobachtungen von Prof. A. Looss, Kairo. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 38, 33–45.Google Scholar
  32. Odhner T. 1912. Zum natürlichen System der digenen Trematoden. V. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 41, 54–71.Google Scholar
  33. Overstreet R.M., Køie M. 1989. Pearsonellum corventum, gen. et sp. nov. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae), in serranid fishes from the Capricornia Section of the Great Barrier Reef. Australian Journal of Zoology, 37, 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Plehn M. 1905. Sanguinicola armata und inermis (n. gen. n. sp.) n. fam. Rhynchostomida. Ein ento-parasitisches Turbellar im Blute von Cypriniden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 29, 244–252.Google Scholar
  35. Plehn M. 1908. Ein monozoischer Cestode als Blutparasit (Sanguinicola armata und inermis Plehn). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 33, 427–440.Google Scholar
  36. Poche F. 1926. Das System der Platodaria. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91, 1–458.Google Scholar
  37. Rasín K. 1929. Janickia volgensis n. gen. n. sp., krevní motolíce z ryby Pelecus cultratus (L.). Biologické Spisy Vysoké Skoly Zverolékarské, 8, 1–21.Google Scholar
  38. Short R.B. 1952. A new species of blood fluke from marine fish (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae). Journal of Parasitology, 38 (4, section 2), 36.Google Scholar
  39. Short R.B. 1953. A new blood fluke, Cardicola laruei n. g., n. sp., (Aporocotylidae) from marine fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 39, 304–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Short R.B. 1954. Anew blood fluke, Selachohemecus olsoni, n. g., n. sp. (Aporocotylidae) from the sharp-nosed shark, Scoliodon terra-novae. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 21, 78–82.Google Scholar
  41. Shvetsova L.S. 2005. Trematoda of the genus Aporocotyle (Sanguinicolata: Aporocotylidae) from fish far eastern seas. Parazitologiya, 39, 423–426.Google Scholar
  42. Smith J.W. 1967. Aporocotyle margolisi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Merluccius productus. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 24, 1763–1773.Google Scholar
  43. Smith J.W. 1972. The blood flukes (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae and Spirorchidae) of cold-blooded vertebrates and some comparison with the schistosomes. Helminthological Abstracts, Ser. A, 41, 161–204.Google Scholar
  44. Smith J.W. 1997a. The blood flukes (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae and Spirorchidae) of cold-blooded vertebrates: Part 1. A review of the published literature since 1971, and bibliography. Helminthological Abstracts, 66, 255–294.Google Scholar
  45. Smith J.W. 1997b. The blood flukes (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae and Spirorchidae) of cold-blooded vertebrates: Part 2. Appendix I: Comprehensive parasite-host list; Appendix II: Comprehensive host-parasite list. Helminthological Abstracts, 66, 329–344.Google Scholar
  46. Smith J.W. 2002. Family Sanguinicolidae von Graff, 1907. In: (Eds. D.I. Gibson, A. Jones and R.A. Bray) Keys to the Trematoda. Vol. 1. CAB International and The Natural History Museum, London, 433–452.Google Scholar
  47. Stunkard H.W. 1923. Studies on North American blood flukes. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 48, 165–221.Google Scholar
  48. Stunkard H.W. 1983. The marine cercariae of the Woods Hole, Massachusetts region, a review and revision. Biological Bulletin, 164, 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Szidat L. 1951. Neue Arten der Trematodenfamilie Aporocotylidae aus dem Blut und der Leibeshöhle von Süsswasserfischen des Rio de la Plata. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 15, 70–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Szidat L. 1955. La fauna de parasitos de Merluccius hubbsi como caracter auxiliar para la solucion de problemas sistematicos y zoogeograficos del genro Merluccius. Comunicaciones del Instituto Nacional de Investigación de las Ciencias Naturales y Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia ”, 3, 1–54.Google Scholar
  51. Thulin J. 1980. A redescription of the fish blood-fluke Aporocotyle simplex Odhner, 1900 (Digenea, Sanguinicolidae) with comments on its biology. Sarsia, 65, 35–48.Google Scholar
  52. Van Cleave H.J., Mueller J.F. 1932. Parasites of the Oneida Lake fishes. Part 1. Descriptions of new genera and species. Roosevelt Wild Life Annals, 3, 5–71.Google Scholar
  53. Van der Land J. 1967. A new blood fluke (Trematoda) from Chimaera monstrosa L. Proceedings. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Sect. C, Biological and Medical Sciences, 70, 110–120.Google Scholar
  54. Wardle W.J. 1979. A new marine cercaria (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the southern quahog Mercenaria campechiensis. Contributions in Marine Science, 22, 53–56.Google Scholar
  55. Williams H., Jones A. 1994. The Variety of Fish Worms. In: (Eds. H. Williams and A. Jones) Parasitic Worms of Fish. Taylor and Francis Inc., Bristol, Pennsylvania, 1–52.Google Scholar
  56. Yamaguti S. 1954. Systema Helminthum. Part I. Digenetic Trematodes of Fishes. Satyu Yamaguti (1953), 405 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Yamaguti S. 1958. Systema Helminthum. Volume 1, Parts 1 and 2. Digenetic Trematodes. Interscience, London, 1575 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Yamaguti S. 1970. Digenetic Trematodes of Hawaiian Fishes. Keigaku Publishing Company, Limited, Tokyo, 436 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Yamaguti S. 1971. Synopsis of Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. Keigaku Publishing Company, Limited, Tokyo, 1074 pp. (Vol. 1), 349 pp. + 219 pls. (Vol. 2).Google Scholar
  60. Yamaguti S. 1975. A Synoptical Review of Life Histories of Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates with Special Reference to the Morphology of Their Larval Forms. Satyu Yamaguti, Kyoto, 590 pp. + 219 pls.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen A. Bullard
    • 1
  • Kirsten Jensen
    • 2
  • Robin M. Overstreet
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Allied AquaculturesAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  3. 3.Department of Coastal Sciences, Gulf Coast Research LaboratoryUniversity of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA

Personalised recommendations