Sensitivity of bacterial vs. acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests to metals
- 237 Downloads
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity of two bacterial tests commonly used in metal toxicity screening — the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test and the Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test — in comparison to the standard acute Daphnia magna test, and to estimate applicability of the selected methods to the toxicity testing of environmental samples. The D. magna acute test proved to be more sensitive to cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) than the two bacterial assays, whereas P. putida seems to be the most sensitive species to lead (Pb). Manganese appears to be slightly toxic to D. magna and non-toxic to the two selected bacteria. This leads to the conclusion that even in regions with high background concentrations, manganese would not act as a confounding factor. Low sensitivity of V. fischeri to heavy metals questions its applicability as the first screening method in assessing various environmental samples. Therefore, it is not advisable to replace D. magna with bacterial species for metal screening tests. P. putida, V. fischeri and/or other bacterial tests should rather be applied in a complex battery of ecotoxicological tests, as their tolerance to heavy metals can unravel other potentially present toxic substances and mixtures, undetectable by metal-sensitive species.
KeywordsToxicity tests Ecotoxicity Heavy metals Daphnia magna Vibrio fischeri Pseudomonas putida
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- ISO 10712:1995, Water quality — Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test (Pseudomonas cell multiplication inhibition test), International Organisation for standardisation, Geneve, Switzerland, 1995Google Scholar
- García-Ripoll A., Amata A.M., Arques A., Vicente R., Ballesteros Martín M.M., Sánchez Pérez J.A., et al., Confirming Pseudomonas putida as a reliable bioassay for demonstrating biocompatibility enhancement by solar photo-oxidative processes of a biorecalcitrant effluent, J. Hazard. Mater., 2009, 162, 1223–1227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teodorovic I., Becelic M., Planojevic I., Ivancev-Tumbas I., Dalmacija B., The relationship between whole effluent toxicity (WET) and chemical-based effluent quality assessment in Vojvodina (Serbia). Environ. Monit. Assess., (in press), DOI 10.1007/ s10661-008-0591-0Google Scholar
- ISO 6341:1996, Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea) — Acute toxicity test, International Organization for Standardization, Geneve, Switzerland, 1996Google Scholar
- Teodorovic I., Planojevic, I., Daphnia magna culturing methods — implications on chronic toxicity tests, Fresenius Environ. Bull., 2008, 17, 985–991Google Scholar
- Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms, 5th ed., EPA-821-R-02-012. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 2002Google Scholar
- ISO 11348-3:2007, Water quality — Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) — Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria, International Organisation for standardisation, Geneve, Switzerland, 2007Google Scholar
- Codina J.C., Perez-Garcia A., Romero P., De Vicente A., A comparison of microbial bioassays for the detection of metal toxicity, Arch. Environ. Cont. Tox., 1993, 25, 250–254Google Scholar
- Bhattacharyya J., Read D., Amos S., Dooley S., Killham K., Paton G.I., Biosensor-based diagnostics of contaminated groundwater: assessment and remediation strategy, Environ. Monit. Assess., 2005, 134, 485–492Google Scholar
- Planojevic I., Optimalan izbor testova za procenu ekotoksičnosti kontaminiranog sedimenta, MSc thesis, University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia, 2007, (in Serbian)Google Scholar