Central European Journal of Biology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 122–136

Hidden secrets of the Northern Adriatic: “Tegnúe”, peculiar reefs

  • Sandra Casellato
  • Luciano Masiero
  • Elena Sichirollo
  • Stefano Soresi
Research Article

Abstract

Research carried out over the last 40 years has underlined the scientific importance of the rocky outcrops scattered on the Northern Adriatic Sea bed sometimes referred to as “tegnúe”. The zoobenthic biocenoses developing over these peculiar geological formations are as extraordinary as they are unique. A study carried out for an entire year in two sampling stations, at different distances from the coast, revealed a very high number of zoobenthic species, including those which have now become rare and are therefore protected in Italian seas. The water turbidity of the northern Adriatic Sea greatly reduces the quantity of light reaching these outcrops, limiting the activity of autotrophic organisms only to sciaphilous genera. Thus, the most represented trophic categories of zoobenthos are suspension, especially filter feeders. Biodiversity values calculated for the communities of these particular reefs are far higher than normally found in the soft seabed in nearby areas, but even higher than in other coralligenous outcrops in other marine ecosystem in the world. The ecological role played by the tegnúe in the Northern Adriatic is extraordinary because as well as being true oases of biodiversity, they are areas naturally protected against bottom trawl-fishing. Thus, they offer shelter and reproduction sites for a number of fish and invertebrate species, including some under stress due to severe fishing pressure.

Keywords

Reefs zoobenthos Adriatic Sea biodiversity oasis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    G. Olivi: Zoologia Adriatica, Bassano, 1792, (in Italian).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Stefanon: “First notes on the discovery of outcrops of beachrock in the Gulf of Venice (Italy)”, Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Medit., Vol. 19, (1969), p. 469.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Stefanon: “The role of beachrock on the study of the evolution of the North Adriatic Sea”, Mem. Biogeogr. Adriat., Vol. 8, (1969), pp. 79–87.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    R.N. Ginsburg: “Beachrock in South Florida”, J. Sedim. Petrol., Vol. 23, (1953), pp. 85–92.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Laborel: “Les concrétionnement Algal “Coralligène” et son importance géomorphologique en Méditerranée”, Recl. Trav. Stn. Mar. Endoume, Vol. 3, (1961), pp. 37–60 (in French).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    H. Gamulin-Brida: “Note préliminaire sur les reserches bionomique dans l’Adriatique méridionale”, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Médit., Vol. 17, (1963), pp. 85–92 (in French).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    H. Gamulin-Brida: “Contribution aux récherches bionomiques sur les fond coralligènes au large de l’Adriatique moyenne ”, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Médit, Vol. 18, (1965), pp. 69–74 (in French).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R. Riedl: “Etudes des fonds vaseaux de l’Adriatique. Methodes et rèsultats“, Recl. Trav. Stn. Mar. Endoume, Vol. 23, (1961), pp. 161–169 (in French).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    J.M. Peres and J. Picard: “Nouveau manuel de bionomie bentique de la Mer.Mediterranee”, Recl. Trav. Stn. Mar. Enduome, Vol. 31, (1964), pp. 1–137 (in French).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    L. Laubier: “Le coralligène des Albère. Monografie biocénotique”, Ann. Inst. Océanogr., Monaco, Vol. 43, (1966), pp. 137–317 (Mediterranee) (in French).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Sarà: “Il coralligeno pugliese e i suoi rapporti con l’ittiofauna”, Boll. Mus. Ist. Biol., Un. Genova, Vol. 37, (1969), pp. 27–31 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Sarà: “Le peuplement du coralligène des Poulles“, Rapp. Com. Int. Mer Méditer., Vol. 20, (1971), pp. 235–237 (in French).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    W. Sigl: “Der Golf von Manfredonia (Suedliche Adria). I. Die fazielle Differenzierung der Sedimente“, Senckenberg Mar., Vol. 5, (1973), pp. 3–49 (in German).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    C. Hartvig: “Natural flutuations in a rocky subtidal community in the Oslo Fjord (Norway)”, Oceanologica Acta; Proceedings 17th European Marine Biology Symposium, Brest France, 27 September–1 October 1982, (1983), pp. 69–73.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    S. Kühne and E. Rachor: “The macrofauna of a stony sand area in the German Bight. Helgoländ. Meeresunters“, Helgol. Mar. Res., Vol. 50, (1996), pp. 433–452.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    L. Dahl and K. Dahl: “Temporal, spatial and substrate-dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna“, Helgol. Mar. Res., Vol. 56, (2002), pp. 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    L. Thobjørn and G.H. Petersen: “The epifauna on the carbonate reefs in the Arctic Ikka Fjord, SW Greenland”, Ophelia, Vol. 57, (2002), pp. 177–2002.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    D. Boedeker, J.C. Krause and H. V. Nordheim: “Interpretation, identification assessment of the Natura 2000 habitats sandbank and reef”, In: H.V. Nordheim, D. Boedeker and J.C. Krause (Eds): Progress in marine conservation in Europe, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006, pp. 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. Stefanon: “Submerged beachrock in the Gulf of Venice (Italy) Key to the knowledge of the local coastline evolution in the last few thousand years”, Quaternaria, Vol. 14, (1971), pp. 191–193.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. Stefanon: “Beach rock and Paleogeography in the North Adriatic Sea”, Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Médit., Vol. 20, (1972), pp. 605–608.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    R.S. Newton and A. Stefanon: “Side-scan sonar and subbottom profiling in the northern Adriatic Sea”, Marine Geol., Vol. 46, (1982), pp. 279–3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. Stefanon and G.M. Zuppi: “Recent carbonate rock formation in the Northern Adriatic Sea: hydrogeological and geotechnical implications”, Hidrogéologie, Vol. 4, (2000), pp. 3–10.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    P. Jensen, I. Aagaard, R.A. Burke, P.R. Dando, N.O. Jørgensen, A. Kuijpers, T. Laier, S.C. O’Hara and R. Schmaljohann: “Bubbling reef in the Kattegat: submarine landscapes of carbonate-cemented rocks support a diverse ecosystem at methane seeps”, Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., Vol. 83, (1992), pp. 103–112Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    E. Ballesteros: “Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages: a synthesis of present knowledge”, Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev., Vol. 44, (2006), pp. 123–195.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    G. Franceschini, S. Raicevich, O. Giovanardi and F. Pranovi: “The use of Side Scan Sonar as a tool in Coastal Zone Management”, Littoral 2002: The changing coast, Porto, Portugal, 2002, pp. 11–14.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    O. Giovanardi, G. Cristofalo, L. Manzueto, and G. Franceschini: ”New data on biogenic reefs (tegnúe of Chioggia) in Adriatic”. In: E. Özhan (Ed): Proceeding of the Sixth International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment, Medcoast 03, Ravenna, Italy Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 2003, pp. 103–116.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    S. Soresi, A. Cristofoli, M. Masiero and S. Casellato: “Benthic communities of rocky outcrops in the Northern Adriatic Sea: a quantitative survey”, Rapp. Com. Int. Mer Medit., Vol. 37, (2004), p. 551.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    S. Casellato, E. Sichirollo, A. Cristofoli, L. Masiero and S. Soresi: “Biodiversità delle “tegnúe” di Chioggia, zona di tutela biologica nel Nord Adriatico”, Biol. Mar. Medit., Vol. 12, (2005), pp. 69–77 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    M. Gabriele, A. Bellot, D. Gallotti and R. Brunetti: “Sublittoral hard substrate communities of the Northern Adriatic Sea”, Cah. Biol. Mar., Vol. 40, (1999), pp. 65–76.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    E. Molin, M. Gabriele and R. Brunetti: “Further news on hard substrate communities of the Northern Adriatic Sea with data on growth and reproduction in Polycitor adriaticus (von Frasche, 1883)”, Boll. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Venezia, Vol. 54, (2003), pp. 19–28.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    J.G. Gamble: “Diving”, In: N.A. Holme and A.D. McIntre (Eds): Methods for the study of marine benthos, 2nd ed., Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, pp. 99–139.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    A. Minelli, S. Ruffo, and S. La Posta: Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, Fasc. 1–110 Ed. Calderini, Bologna, 1993–1995 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    O. Sörensen: “A method of establishing groups of aequal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species content“, Biol. Sk., Vol 6, (1948), pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    S. Casellato, S. Masciadri, L. Masiero and G. Campi: “Impatto della pesca con draghe idrauliche sulla comunità bentonica della fascia costiera Alto-Adriatica”, Biol. Mar. Medit., Vol. 9, (2002), pp. 170–179 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    M.A. True: “Ètude quantitative de quatre peuplements sciaphiles sur substrat rocheux dans le région marsellaise”, Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique (Monaco), Vol. 69,(1970), pp. 1–48 (in French).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    M. Zabala and E. Ballesteros: “Surface-dependent strategies and energy flux in benthic marine communities or, why corals do not exist in the Mediterranean”, Sci. Mar., Vol. 61, (1989), pp. 65–77.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    K.J. Buhr: “Eine Massensiedlung von Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) im Weser-Ästuar Germany“, Veroeff. Inst. Meeresforsch., Bremerh. Vol.17, (1979), pp. 101–149 (in German).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    A. Stefanon and A. Boldrin: “The oxygen crisis of the northern Adriatic Seawaters in late fall 1977 and its effects on benthic communities”, In: J.B.J. Mayr and I. Morrison (Eds): Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of the “Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques”, Natural Environmental Research Council, 1982, pp. 167–175.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    T.H. Pearson and R. Rosemberg: “Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment”, Oceanogr. Mar. Biol., Vol. 16, (1978), pp. 229–311.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    F.P. Ojeda and B. Santelice: “Invertebrate communities in hold-fast of the kelp Macrocystis pyrifera from southern Chile”, Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., Vol. 16, (1984), pp. 65–73.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    L. Mizzan: “Malacocenosi e faune associate in due stazioni alto adriatiche a substrati solidi”, Boll. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Venezia, Vol. 41, (1992), pp. 7–54 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    S.D.A. Smith, R.D. Simpson and S.C. Cairns: “The macrofaunal community of Ecklonia radiata holdfast: description of the faunal assemblage and variations associated with differences in holdfast volume”, Aust. J. Ecol., Vol. 21, (1996), pp. 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    M. Ponti and F. Mastrototaro: “Distribuzione dei popolamenti ad ascidie sui fondali rocciosi (tegnúe) al largo di Chioggia (Venezia)”, Biol. Mar. Medit., Vol. 13, (2006), pp. 621–624 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    M. Ponti, M. Tumedei, F. Colombo and M. Abbiati: “Distribuzione dei popolamenti epibentonici sui fondali rocciosi (tegnúe) al largo di Chioggia (Venezia)”, Biol. Mar. Medit., Vol. 13, (2006), pp. 625–628 (in Italian).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    G. Pulitzer-Finali: “A collection of Mediterranean Demospongiae (Porifera) with, in appendix, a list of the Demospongiae hitherto recorded from the Mediterranean Sea”, Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Genova, Vol. 84, (1983), pp. 445–621.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    G. Corriero, L. Scalera Liaci, D. Ruggiero and M. Pansini: “The sponge community of a semisubmerged Mediterranean Cave”, Mar. Ecol., Vol. 21, (2000), pp. 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Casellato
    • 1
  • Luciano Masiero
    • 1
  • Elena Sichirollo
    • 1
  • Stefano Soresi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversità di PadovaPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations