Advertisement

Ternary ion-association complexes between the indium(III) - 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol anionic chelate and some tetrazolium cations

  • Galya K. Toncheva
  • Kiril B. GavazovEmail author
  • Vanya D. Lekova
  • Kirila T. Stojnova
  • Atanas N. Dimitrov
Research Article
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in systems containing indium(III), 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR), tetrazolium salt (TZS), water and chloroform. Two different TZS were used: 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The optimum conditions for extraction of In(III) as a ternary complex, (TT+)[In(PAR)2] or (MTT+)[In(PAR)2], were found: pH, extraction time, concentration of PAR and concentration of TZS. The constants of extraction (Kex), constants of association (β), constants of distribution (KD) and recovery factors (R%) were determined. The apparent molar absorptivities in chloroform were calculated to be ɛ′520=6.6×104 L mol−1 cm−1 and ɛ′515=7.1×104 L mol−1 cm−1 for the systems with TTC (I) and MTT (II), respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed for In(III) concentrations up to 3.4 µg mL−1 in both the cases. The limits of detection (LOD=0.07 µg mL−1 I and LOD=0.12 µg mL−1 II), limits of quantification (LOQ=0.24 µg mL−1 I and LOQ=0.41 µg mL−1 II) and Sandell’s sensitivities (SS) were estimated as well.

Keywords

Indium Liquid-liquid extraction Spectrophotometry Triphenyltetrazolium Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium 

References

  1. [1]
    P.I. Fedorov, R.H. Akchurin, Indij (Nauka, MAIK Nauka/Interperiodika, Moskow, 2000) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Polendniok, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 186, 343 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S.A. Wood, I.M. Samson, Ore Geol. Rev. 28, 57 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    A.M. Alfantazi, R.R. Moskalyk, Miner. Eng. 16, 687 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Polendniok, F. Buhl, Chem. Anal. (Warsaw) 51, 631 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    A. Reller, T. Bublies, T. Staudinger, I. Oswald, S. Meissner, M. Allen, GAIA 18, 127 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    K. Vang, F. Liu, H. Ye, X. Zhang, Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 29, 19 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    C. Mikolajczak, Technical papers, White papers (Indium Corporation, USA, 2011) http://www.indium.com/techlibrary/whitepapers/availability-of-indium-andgallium Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A.P. Paiva, Sep. Sci. Technol. 36, 1395 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    J.S. Liu, H. Chen, X.Y. Chen, Z.L. Guo, Y.C. Hu, C.P. Liu, Y.Z. Sun, Hydrometallurgy 82,137 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    J.-H. Yao, Y.-W. Li, Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis 30, 45 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    A.A. Huseyinli, R. Alieva, S. Haciyeva, T. Güray, J. Hazard. Mater. 163, 1001 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    P.P. Kish, S.T. Orlovsky, Zh. Anal. Khim. 17, 1057 (1962) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    C.P. Vibhute, S.M. Khopkar, Analyst 111, 435 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    L.L. Kolomiets, I.V. Pyatnitskii, Ukr. Khim. Zh. 45, 62 (1979) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    E.A. Biryuk, R.V. Ravitskaya, Zh. Anal. Khim. 26, 735 (1971) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Z. Marczenko, M. Balcerzak, Metod’y spektrofotometrii v UF I vidimoj oblastyakh v neorganicheskom analize (Binom. Laboratoriya znanij, Moskow, 2007) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    M. Hniličková, Collection Czech. Chem. Commun. 29, 1424 (1964)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Y.K. Agrawal, V.J. Bhatt, Analyst 111, 57 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    A.I. Busev, V.M. Ivanov, N.S. Khlibova, Zh. Anal. Khim. 22, 547 (1967) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    S.A. Abbasi, Anal. Lett. 21, 1705 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    N.K. Agnihotri, S. Ratnani, V.K. Singh, H.B. Singh, Anal. Sci. 19, 1297 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    V.K. Singh, N.K. Agnihotri, H.B. Singh, R.L. Sharma, Talanta 55, 799 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    S.I. Gusev, E.M. Nikolaeva, Zh. Anal. Khim. 21, 166 (1966) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    R.L. Sharma, H.B. Singh, M. Satake, Analyst 111, 551 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    F.I. Lobanov, G.K. Nurtaeva, E.E. Ergozhin, Ekstraktsiya kompleksov ionov metallov s piridinovymi oksiazosoedineniyami (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1983) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    D. Bin, W. Shuren, W. Qin, F. Jiawei, Kuangwu Yanshi/Journal of Mineralogy & Petrology 15, 97 (1995)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    P. Voznica, J. Havel, L. Sommer, Collection Czech. Chem. Commun. 45, 54 (1980)Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    C. Ibraimov, S.T. Talipov, N.B. Babaev, I.M. Nurmatov, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Khim. Khim. Tekhnol. 24, 669 (1981) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    L. Sommer, M. Langová-Hniličková, Talanta 16, 681 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    S.L.C. Ferreira, A.C.S. Costa, H.A.S. Andrade, Microchem. J. 44, 63 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    A.I. Busev, T.N. Zholondkovskaya, L.S. Krysina, N.A. Golubkova, Zh. Anal. Khim. 27, 2165 (1972) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    A.P. Joshi, K.N. Munshi, Mikrochim. Acta 59, 526 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    I.V. Pyatnitskii, A.K. Boryak, L.L. Kolomiets, Zh. Anal. Khim. 41, 2199 (1986) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    N.N. Basargin, A.A. Kafarova, Zavod. Lab. 50, 14 (1984) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    I.V. Pyatnitskii, L.L. Kolomiets, G.M. Popovich, Zh. Anal. Khim. 38, 815 (1983) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    H.A. Mottola, Talanta 11, 715 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    M.S. Rizk, H.A. Mohamed, Y.M. Issa, M.M. Abu-Agwa, Asian J. Chem. 8, 731 (1996)Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Y. Anjaneyulu, C.S. Kavipurapu, M.R.P. Reddy, P.C. Mouli, Analusis 15, 106 (1987)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    K.B. Gavazov, Z. Simeonova, A. Alexandrov, Talanta 52, 539 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    K. Gavazov, V. Lekova, G. Patronov, M. Turkyilmaz, Chem. Anal. (Warsaw) 51, 221 (2006)Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    F. Genç, K.B. Gavazov, M. Türkyilmaz, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 8, 461 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    K.B. Gavazov, A.N. Dimitrov, V.D. Lekova, Uspekhi Khim. 76, 187 (2007) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    K.B. Gavazov, V.D. Lekova, A.N. Dimitrov, G.I. Patronov, Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 5, 257 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    G.A.E. Mostafa, Talanta 71, 1449 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    A.G.F. Elsaid, N.M.H. Rizk, A.B.H. Matter, Asian J. Chem. 22, 1736 (2010)Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    V. Lekova, P. Racheva, K. Stojnova, A. Dimitrov, K. Gavazov, Chemija 21, 106 (2010)Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    M.I. Bulatov, I.P. Kalinkin, Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo po fotokolorimetricheskim i spektrofotometricheskim metodam analiza (Khimiya, Leningrad, 1986) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    T.M. Seward, C.M.B. Henderson, J.M. Charnock, Chem. Geol. 167, 117 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    W. Likussar, D.F. Boltz, Anal. Chem. 43, 1265 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    A. Alexandrov, O. Budevski, A. Dimitrov, J. Radioanal. Chem. 29, 243 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    H.B. Singh, P.S. Kadyan, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 61, 3689 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Galya K. Toncheva
    • 1
  • Kiril B. Gavazov
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vanya D. Lekova
    • 1
  • Kirila T. Stojnova
    • 1
  • Atanas N. Dimitrov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General and Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of PlovdivPlovdivBulgaria

Personalised recommendations