The growth rate of international trade among industrial countries has declined by more than half since the inception of floating exchange rates. To explain the slowdown, the effects of exchange rate volatility are separated from those of other shocks since 1973 – in particular, changes in oil prices and in trade regimes. The paper focuses on the effects of exchange rate variability with lags longer than a few months or quarters.
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De Grauwe, P. Exchange Rate Variability and the Slowdown in Growth of International Trade. IMF Econ Rev 35, 63–84 (1988). https://doi.org/10.2307/3867277