Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 469–481 | Cite as

Compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups

  • W. Parker FrisbieEmail author
  • Douglas Forbes
  • Starling G. Pullum
Outcomes for Children

Abstract

Research based on hospital records demonstrates that many births classified as normal according to conventional demographic measurement are intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) when evaluated clinically; also, in addition to birth weight and gestational age, it is necessary to focus on a third dimension, maturity, in analyses of birth outcomes. Although clinical studies allow more precise classification, the small number of cases tends to result in unreliable estimates of rates and in loss of genera lizability. The fetal growth ratio, a measure recently shown to be a valid proxy for maturity, is used here to develop a classification system based on combinations of weight, gestational age, and maturity, which we apply in a comparative analysis of a large data set. The results show large differences in the distribution of compromised births across racial and ethnic groups, as well as significant race/ethnic differentials in the risk of infant mortality associated with adverse outcomes.

Keywords

Birth Weight Infant Mortality Birth Outcome Early Neonatal Mortality Black Infant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich, J.H. and F.D. Nelson. 1990. Linear Probability, Logit and Probit Models. 9th ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, G.R., M.E. Tompkins, and D.A. Comely. 1990. “Gestational Age Reporting and Preterrn Delivery.” Public Health Reports 105:267–75.Google Scholar
  3. Balcazar, H. 1993. “Mexican Americans’ Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Maternal Risk Factors.” Ethnicity and Disease 3:169–75.Google Scholar
  4. — 1994. “The Prevalence of Intrauterine Growth Retardation in Mexican Americans.” American Journal of Public Health 84:462–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balcazar, H. and J. Haas. 1990. “Classification Schemes of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Type of Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Its Implications to Early Neonatal Mortality.” Early Human Development 24:219–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balcazar, H., L. Keefer, and T. Chard. 1994. “Use of Anthropometric Indicators and Maternal Risk Factors to Evaluate Intrauterine Growth Retardation in Infants Weighing More Than 2500 Grams at Birth.” Early Human Development 36: 147–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Battaglia, F.C. and L.O. Lubchenco. 1967. “A Practical Classification of Newborn Infants by Weight and Gestational Age.” Journal of Pediatrics 71: 159–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biran, G., M. Mazor, I. Shoham, J. Leiberman, and M. Glezerman. 1994. “Premature Delivery of Small versus Appropriate-for-Age Neonates: A Comparative Study of Maternal Characteristics.” Journal of Reproductive Medicine 39:39–44.Google Scholar
  9. Brenner, W.E., D.A. Edelman, and C.H. Hendricks. 1976. “A Standard of Fetal Growth for the United States of America.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 126:555–64.Google Scholar
  10. Collins, Jr. J.W. and N.A. Hammond. 1996. “Relation of Maternal Race to the Risk of Preterrn, Non-Low Birth Weight Infants: A Population Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 143:33–337.Google Scholar
  11. Cramer, J.C. 1987. “Social Factors and Infant Mortality: Identifying High-Risk Groups and Proximate Causes.” Demography 24:299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. — 1995. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Birthweight: The Role of Income and Financial Assistance.” Demography 32: 231–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forbes, D. and WP. Frisbie. 1991. “Spanish Surname and Anglo Infant Mortality: Timing and Cause of Death Differentials over a Half-Century.” Demography 28:639–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frisbie, W.P., M. Biegler, P. de Turk, D. Forbes, and S.G. Pullum. 1996. “Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Other Compromised Outcomes: A Comparison of Mexican Americans, African Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites.” Working Paper 95-96-07, Austin: University of Texas Population Research Center.Google Scholar
  15. Geronimus, A.T. and S. Korenman. 1993. “Maternal Youth or Family Background? On the Health Disadvantages of Infants with Teenage Mothers.” American Journal of Epidemiology 137: 213–25.Google Scholar
  16. Haas, J., H. Balcazar, and L. Caulfield. 1987. “Variation in Early Neonatal Mortality for Different Types of Fetal Growth Retardation.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 73:46773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hummer, R.A., C.P. Schmertmann, I.W. Eberstein, and S. Kelly. 1995. “Retrospective Reports of Pregnancy Wantedness and Birth Outcomes in the United States.” Social Science Quarterly 76:402–18.Google Scholar
  18. Institute of Medicine. 1985. Preventing Low Birthweight. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jacobson, J.D. and L. Cousins. 1989. “A Population-Based Study of Maternal and Perinatal Outcome in Patients with Gestational Diabetes.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161:981–86.Google Scholar
  20. Kallan, J.E. 1993. “Race, Intervening Variables, and Two Components of Low Birth Weight.” Demography 30:489–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kiely, J.L. and M. Susser. 1992. “Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Growth Retardation, and Perinatal Mortality.” American Journal of Public Health 82:343-45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kleinman, J.C. and S.S. Kessel. 1987. “Racial Differences in Low Birth Weight: Trends and Risk Factors.” New England Journal of Medicine 317:749–53.Google Scholar
  23. Kline, J., Z. Stein, and M. Susser. 1989. Conception to Birth: Epidemiology of Prenatal Development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Koops, B.L., L.J. Morgan, and F.C. Battaglia. 1982. “Neonatal Mortality Risk in Relation to Birth Weight and Gestational Age: Update.” Journal of Pediatrics 101:969–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kramer, M.S., F.H. McLean, M.E. Boyd, and R.H. Usher. 1988. “The Validity of Gestational Age Estimation by Menstrual Dating in Term, Preterm, and Postterm Gestations.” Journal of the American Medical Association 260:3306–3308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kramer, M.S., F.H. McLean, M. Olivier, D.M. Willis, and R.H. Usher. 1989. “Body Proportionality and Head and Length ‘Sparing’ in Growth-Retarded Neonates: A Critical Reappraisal.” Pediatrics 84:717–23.Google Scholar
  27. Lubchenco, L.O. and B.L. Koops. 1987. “Assessment of Weight and Gestational Age.” Pp. 235–57 in Neonatology: Pathophysiology and Management of the Newborn, 3d ed., edited by G.B. Avery. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  28. Lubchenco, L.O., D.T. Searls, and J.V. Brazie. 1972. “Neonatal Mortality Rate: Relationship to Birth Weight and Gestational Age.” Journal of Pediatrics 81:814–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Markides, K.S. and J. Coreil. 1986. “The Health of Hispanics in the Southwestern United States: An Epidemiologic Paradox.” Public Health Reports 101:253–65.Google Scholar
  30. McCormick, M.C. 1985. “The Contribution of Low Birth Weight to Infant Mortality and Childhood Mortality.” The New England Journal of Medicine 312:82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rumbaut, R.G. and J.R. Weeks. 1991. Perinatal Risks and Outcomes Among Low-Income Immigrants. Final Report for the Maternal and Child Health Research Program. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  32. Schick, F.L. and R. Schick. 1991. Statistical Handbook on U.S. Hispanics. Phoenix: Oryx.Google Scholar
  33. Scribner, R. 1996. “Paradox as Paradigm: The Health Outcomes of Mexican Americans.” American Journal of Public Health 86: 303–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shiono, P.H., M.A. Klebanoff, B.1. Graubard, H.W. Berendez, and G.H. Rhoads. 1986. “Birth Weight among Women of Different Ethnic Groups.” Journal of the American Medical Association 255:48–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilcox, AJ. 1981. “Birth Weight, Gestation, and the Fetal Growth Curve.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 139: 863–67.Google Scholar
  36. Wilcox, AJ. and 1. Russell. 1983a. “Birthweight and Perinatal Mortality: 1. On the Frequency Distribution of Birthweight.” International Journal of Epidemiology 12:314–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. — 1983b. “Birthweight and Perinatal Mortality: II. On Weight-Specific Mortality.” International Journal of Epidemiology 12:319–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. — 1986. “Birthweight and Perinatal Mortality: III. Towards a New Method of Analysis.” International Journal of Epidemiology 15:188–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. — 1990. “Why Small Black Infants Have a Lower Mortality Rate Than Small White Infants: The Case for Population-Specific Standards for Birth Weight.” Journal of Pediatrics 116:7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wilcox, A.J. and R. Skjoerven. 1992. “Birth Weight and Perinatal Mortality: The Effect of Gestational Age.” American Journal of Public Health 82:378–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams, R.L., N.J. Binkin, and E.J. Clingman. 1986. “Pregnancy Outcomes among Spanish-Surname Women in California.” American Journal of Public Health 76:387–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams, R.L., R.K. Creasey, G.C. Cunningham, W.E. Hawes, F.D. Norris, and M. Tashiro. 1982. “Fetal Growth and Perinatal Viability in California.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 59:624–32.Google Scholar
  43. Yerushalmy, J. 1967. “The Classification of Newborn Infants by Birth Weight and Gestational Age.” Journal of Pediatrics 71:164–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Parker Frisbie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Douglas Forbes
    • 2
  • Starling G. Pullum
    • 3
  1. 1.Population Research CenterThe University of Texas at AustinAustin
  2. 2.Douglas ForbesSouthwest Texas State University and Starling G. PullumUSA
  3. 3.The University of Texas at AustinUSA

Personalised recommendations