Job, family, and gender: Determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991

Abstract

This study provides the most recent national estimates of the prevalence of employment during nonstandard hours (evenings, nights, or rotating hours) and on weekends. It also examines in a multivariate context the relevance of job and family characteristics as determinants of such employment, separately for men and for women. The findings support the contention that the demand for employment during nonstandard hours and weekends is pervasive throughout the occupational hierarchy, but particularly in service occupations and in personal service industries and for both men and .women. Gender differences exist, however, in the relevance of family factors. Being married reduces women’s but not men’s likelihood of employment during nonstandard hours, and the presence of children affects women’s but not men’s hours and days of employment. (The direction of the effect for women depends on the children’s age.) Implications of these findings are discussed.

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The author gratefully acknowledges core support to the Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and special funds from the University of Maryland to support the author’s Distinguished Faculty Research Fellowship for the 1993–1994 academic year. This paper was revised for publication while the author was a 1994–95 Fellow-in-Residence at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The comments of two anonymous journal reviewers were very constructive for the revision. Of invaluable help were the computer programming and research assistance of Amy Cox and Chuck McCormick, and the secretarial assistance of Shalini Batras and Anne Simpson. 1995 Population Association of America

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Presser, H.B. Job, family, and gender: Determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991. Demography 32, 577–598 (1995). https://doi.org/10.2307/2061676

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Keywords

  • Child Care
  • Shift Work
  • Current Population Survey
  • Work Schedule
  • Child Care Cost