Estuaries

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 765–792 | Cite as

Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

  • Robert Emmett
  • Roberto Llansó
  • Jan Newton
  • Ron Thom
  • Michelle Hornberger
  • Cheryl Morgan
  • Colin Levings
  • Andrea Copping
  • Paul Fishman
Article

Abstract

West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

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Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Emmett
    • 1
  • Roberto Llansó
    • 2
  • Jan Newton
    • 2
  • Ron Thom
    • 3
  • Michelle Hornberger
    • 4
  • Cheryl Morgan
    • 5
  • Colin Levings
    • 6
  • Andrea Copping
    • 7
  • Paul Fishman
    • 8
  1. 1.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries serviceNorthwest Fisheries Science CenterNewport
  2. 2.Washington Department of EcologyOlympia
  3. 3.Battelle/Marine Sciences LaboratoryPacific Northwest LaboratoriesSequim
  4. 4.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo Park
  5. 5.Cooperative Institute for Marine Resource StudiesOregon State UniversityNewport
  6. 6.Canadian Department of Fisheries OceansPacific Environmental Science CenterNorth VancouverCanada
  7. 7.Washington Sea Grant ProgramUniversity of WashingtonSeattle
  8. 8.Fishman Environmental ServicesPortland
  9. 9.Versar, Inc.Columbia

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