, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 743–764 | Cite as

Estuaries of the northeastern United States: Habitat and land use signatures

  • Charles T. RomanEmail author
  • Norbert Jaworski
  • Frederick T. Short
  • Stuart Findlay
  • R. Scott Warren


Geographic signatures are physical, chemical, biotic, and human-induced characteristics or processes that help define similar or unique features of estuaries along latitudinal or geographic gradients. Geomorphologically, estuaries of the northeastern U.S., from the Hudson River estuary and northward along the Gulf of Maine shoreline, are highly diverse because of a complex bedrock geology and glacial history. Back-barrier estuaries and lagoons occur within the northeast region, but the domiant type is the drowned-river valley, often with rocky shores. Tidal range and mean depth of northeast estuaries are generally greater when compared to estuaries of the more southern U.S. Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Because of small estuarine drainage basins, low riverine flows, a bedrock substrate, and dense forest cover, sediment loads in northeast estuaries are generally quite low and water clarity is high. Tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, intertidal mudflats, and rocky shores represent major habitat types that fringe northeast estuaries, supporting commercially-important fauna, forage nekton and benthos, and coastal bird communities, while also serving as links between deeper estuarine waters and habitats through detritus-based pathways. Regarding land use and water quality trends, portions of the northeast have a history of over a century of intense urbanization as reflected in increased total nitrogen and total phosphorus loadings to estuaries, with wastewater treatment facilities and atmospheric deposition being major sources. Agricultural inputs are relatively minor throughout the northeast, with relative importance increasing for coastal plain estuaries. Identifying geographic signatures provides an objective means for comparing the structure, function, and processes of estuaries along latitudinal gradients.


Salt Marsh Blue Crab Tidal Marsh Seagrass Meadow National Wetland Inventory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Able, K. W., K. L. Heck, Jr.,M. P. Fahay, andC. T. Roman. 1988. Use of salt-marsh peat reefs by small juvenile lobsters on Cape cod, Massachusetts.Estuaries 11:83–86.Google Scholar
  2. Able, K. W., D. A. Witting, R. S. McBride, R. A. Rountree, andK. J. Smith. 1996. Fishes of polyhaline estuarine shores in Great Bay-Little Egg harbor, New Jersey: A case study of seasonal and habitat influences, p. 335–353.In K. F. Nordstrom and C. T. Roman (eds.), Estuarine Shores. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  3. Addy, C. E. andD. A. Aylward. 1944. Status of eelgrass in Massachusetts during 1943.Journal of Wildlife Management 8:269–275.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, F. E., L. Black, L. E. Watling, W. Mook, andL. M. Mayer. 1981. A temporal and spatial study of mudflat erosion and deposition.Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 51:729–736.Google Scholar
  5. Anisfeld, S. C. andG. Benoit. 1997. Impacts of flow restrictions on salt marshes: An instance of acidification.Environmental Science and Technology 31:1650–1657.Google Scholar
  6. Ayvazian, S. G., L. A. Deegan, andJ. T. Finn. 1992. Comparison of habitat use by estuarine fish assemblages in the Acadian and Virginian zoogeographic provinces.Estuaries 15:368–383.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, N. E. andW. A. Niering. 1993. Tidal marsh restoration: Trends in vegetation change using a Geographical Information System (GIS).Restoration Ecology 1:18–28.Google Scholar
  8. Bertness, M. D. 1984. habitat and community modification by an introduced herbivorous snail.Ecology 65:370–381.Google Scholar
  9. Bertness, M. D. 1999. The Ecology of Atlantic Shorelines. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  10. Bianchi, T. S., M. Baskaran, J. DeLord, andM. Ravichandran. 1997. Carbon cycling in a shallow turbid estuary of southeast Texas: The use of plant pigment biomarkers and water quality parameters.Estuaries 20:404–415.Google Scholar
  11. Biggs, R. B., J. H. Sharp, T. M. Church, andJ. M. Tramontano. 1983. Optical properties, suspended sediments, and chemistry associated with the turbidity maxima of the Delaware Estuary.Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:172–179.Google Scholar
  12. Boesch, D. F. andR. E. Turner. 1984. Dependence of fishery species on salt marshes: The role of food and refuge.Estuaries 7:460–468.Google Scholar
  13. Boothroyd, J. C., N. E. Friedrich, andS. R. McGinn. 1985. Geology of microtical coastal lagoons, Rhode Island.Marine Geology 63:35–76.Google Scholar
  14. Bourn, W. S. andC. Cottam 1950. Some Biological Effects of Ditching Tidewater Marshes. Research Report 19. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. Bricker-Urso, S., S. W. Nixon, J. K. Cochran, D. J. Hirshberg, andC. Hunt. 1989. Accretion rates and sediment accumulation in Rhode Island salt marshes.Estuaries 12:300–317.Google Scholar
  16. Briggs, P. T. andJ. S. O'Connor. 1971. Comparison of shorezone fishes over naturally vegetated and sand-filled bottoms in Great South Bay.New York Fish and Game Journal 18:15–41.Google Scholar
  17. Burdick, D. M., M. Dionne, R. M. Boumans, andF. T. Short. 1997. Ecological responses to tidal restorations of two northern New England salt marshes.Wetlands Ecology and Management 4:129–144.Google Scholar
  18. Cain, R. L. andJ. M. Dean. 1976. Annual occurrence, abundance and diversity of fish in a South Carolina intertidal creek.Marine Biology 36:369–379.Google Scholar
  19. Calhoun, A. J. K., J. E. Cormier, R. B. Owen, Jr., A. F. O'Connell, Jr., C. T. Roman, and R. W. Tiner, Jr. 1993. The Wetlands of Acadia National Park and Vicinity. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station Miscellaneous Publication 721. Orono, Maine.Google Scholar
  20. Cambareri, T. C. andE. M. Eichner. 1998. Watershed delineation and groundwater discharge to a coastal embayment.Ground Water 36:626–634.Google Scholar
  21. Capone, D. G. andM. F. Bautista. 1985. A groundwater source of nitrate in nearshore marine sediments.Nature 313:214–216.Google Scholar
  22. Champ, M. A., G. A. Gould III,W. E. Bozzo, S. G. Ackelson, andK. C. Vierra. 1980. Characterization of light extinction and attenuation in Chesapeake Bay, August 1977, p. 263–277.In V. S. Kennedy (ed.), Estuarine Perspectives. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Chapman, V. J. 1960. Salt Marshes and Salt Deserts of the World. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  24. Chimura, G. L., P. Chase, andJ. Bercovitch. 1997. Climatic controls of the middle marsh zone in the Bay of Fundy.Estuaries 20:689–699.Google Scholar
  25. Chock, J. S. andA. C. Mathieson. 1983. Variations of New England estuarine seaweed biomass.Botanica Marina 26:87–97.Google Scholar
  26. Conover, R. J. 1961. A study of Charlestown and Green Hill Ponds, Rhode Island.Ecology 42:119–140.Google Scholar
  27. Costa, J. E. 1988. Eelgrass in Buzzards Bay: Distribution, Production and Historical Changes in Abundance. Technical Report BBP-88-05, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 1, Boston, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  28. Cottam, C. 1934. Past Periods of eelgrass scarcity.Rhodora 36:261–264.Google Scholar
  29. Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, andE. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Culliton, T. J., M. A. Warren, T. R. Goodspeed, D. G. Remer, C. M. Blackwell, andJ. J. McDonough III. 1990. 50 Years of Population Change Along the Nation's Coasts, 1960–2010. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  31. Daiber, F. C. 1986. Conservation of Tidal Marshes. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.Google Scholar
  32. Daiber, F. C. andC. T. Roman. 1988. Tidal marshes, p. 95–113.In T. L. Bryant and J. R. Pennock (eds.), The Delaware Estuary: Rediscovering, a Forgotten Resource. University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program, Newark, Delaware.Google Scholar
  33. Davis, R. C. andF. T. Short. 1997. Restoring eelgrass,Zostera marina L., habitat using a new transplanting technique: The horizontal rhizome method.Aquatic Botany 59:1–15.Google Scholar
  34. Davis, R. C., F. T. Short, andD. M. Burdick. 1998. Quantifying the effects of green crab damage to eelgrass transplants.Restoration Ecology 6:297–302.Google Scholar
  35. Dennison, W. C. andR. S. Alberte. 1985. Role of daily light period in the depth distribution ofZostera marina (eelgrass).Marine Ecology Progress Series 25:51–61.Google Scholar
  36. Dexter, R. W. 1985. Changes in the standing crop of eelgrass,Zostera marina L., at Cape Ann, Massachusetts, since the epidemic of 1932.Rhodora 87:357–366.Google Scholar
  37. Dionne, M., F. T. Short, and D. M. Burdick. 1999. Fish utilization of restored, created, and reference salt-marsh habitat in the Gulf of Maine, p. 384–404.In L. Benaka (ed.), Fish Habitat: Essential, Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 22, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  38. Dorf, B. A. andJ. C. Powell. 1997. Distribution, abundance, and habitat characteristics of juvenile tautog (Tautoga onitis, Family Labridae) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, 1988–92.Estuaries 20:589–600.Google Scholar
  39. Duffy, W. D., D. F. Belknap, andJ. T. Kelley. 1989. Morphology and stratigraphy of small barrier-lagoon systems in Maine.Marine Geology 88:243–262.Google Scholar
  40. Fefer, S. I. andP. A. Schettig. 1980. An Ecological Characterization of Coastal Maine (North and East of Cape Elizabeth), Volume 1–4. FWS/OBS-80/29. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  41. Fell, P. E., K. A. Murphy, M. A. Peck, andM. L. Recchia. 1991. Re-establishment ofMelampus bidentatus (Say) and other macroinvertebrates on a restored impounded tidal marsh: Comparison of populations above and below the impoundment dike.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 152:33–48.Google Scholar
  42. Fell, P. E., S. P. Weissbach, D. A. Jones, M. A. Fallon, J. A. Zeppieri, E. K. Faison, K. A. Lennon, K. J. Newberry, andL. K. Reddington. 1998. Does invasion of oligohaline tidal marshes by reed grass,Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., affect the availability of prey resources for the mummichog,Fundulus heterodlitus L.?Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 222:59–77.Google Scholar
  43. Fisher, J. J. 1987. Shoreline development of the glacial Cape Cod cpastline, p. 279–305.In D. M. FitzGerald and P. S. Rosen (eds.), Glaciated Coasts. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.Google Scholar
  44. FitzGerald, D. M., P. T. Baldwin, N. A. Ibrahim, andD. R. Sands. 1987. Development of the northwestern Buzzards Bay shoreline, Massachusetts, p. 327–357.In D. M. FitzGerald and P. S. Rosen (eds.), Glaciated Coasts. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.Google Scholar
  45. FitzGerald, D. M., P. S. Rosen, andS. van Heteren. 1994. New England barriers, p. 305–394.In R. A. Davis, Jr. (ed), Geology of Holocene Barrier Island Systems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  46. Flemer, D. A. 1970. Primary production in the Chesapeake Bay.Chesapeake Science 11:117–129.Google Scholar
  47. Folger, D. W., R. H. Meade, B. F. Jones, andR. L. Cory. 1972. Sediments and waters of Somes Sound, a fjordlike estuary in Maine.Limnology and Oceanography 17:394–402.Google Scholar
  48. Fonseca, M. A. 1992. Restoring seagrass systems in the United States, p. 79–110.In G. W. Thayer (ed.), Restoring the Nation's Marine Environment. Maryland Sea Grant College, College Park, Maryland.Google Scholar
  49. Fonseca, M. S., W. J. Kenworthy, and G. W. Thayer. 1998. Guidelines for Mitigation and Restoration of Seagrass in the United States and Adjacent Waters. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service Coastal Ocean Program, Decision Analysis Series, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  50. Foster, D. R. 1992. Land-use history (1730–1990) and vegetation dynamics in Central New England, USA.Journal of Ecology 80:753–772.Google Scholar
  51. Foster, D. R., T. Zebryk, P. Schoonmaker, andA. Lezberg. 1992. Post-settlement history of human land-use and vegetation dynamics of aTsuga canadensis (hemlock) woodlot in central New England.Journal of Ecology 80:773–786.Google Scholar
  52. Foulis, D. B., J. A. Eaton, andR. W. Tiner. 1994. Wetland Trends for Selected Areas of the Gulf of Maine, from York, Maine to Rowley, Massachusetts (1977 to 1985–86). Ecological Service Report R5-94/4. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  53. Foulis, D. B. andR. W. Tiner. 1994a. Wetland Trends for Selected Areas of the Cobscook Bay/St. Croix River Estuary of the Gulf of Maine (1975–77 to 1983–85) Ecological Services Report R5-94/3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  54. Foulis, D. B. andR. W. Tiner. 1994b. Wetland, Trends for Selected Areas of the Casco Bay Estuary of the Gulf of Maine (1974–77 to 1984–87). Ecological Services Report R5-94/1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  55. Foulis, D. B. andR. W. Tiner. 1994c. Wetland Trends for Selected Areas of the coast of Massachusetts, from Plum Island to Scituate (1977 to 1985–86). Ecological Services Report R5-94/2. U.S. Fish and wildlife Service. Hadley, Massachusettsetts.Google Scholar
  56. Giblin, A. E. andA. G. Gaines. 1990. Nitrogen inputs to a marine embayment: The importance of groundwater.Biogeochemistry 10:309–328.Google Scholar
  57. Gosselink, J. G. andR. H. Baumann. 1980. Wetland inventories: Wetland loss along the United States coast.Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementbände 34:173–187.Google Scholar
  58. Grizzle, R. E., F. T. Short, H. Hoven, L. Kindbloom, andC. R. Newell. 1996. Hydrodynamically induced synchronous waving of seagrass “monami” and its possible effects on larval mussel settlement.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 206:165–177.Google Scholar
  59. Harley, M. T. andS. Findlay. 1994. Photosynthesis-irradiance relationships for three species of submersed macrophytes in the tidal freshwater Hudson River.Estuaries 17:200–205.Google Scholar
  60. Harlin, M. M. 1995. Changes in major plant groups following nutrient enrichment, p. 173–187.In A. J. McComb (ed.), Eutrophic Shallow Estuaries and Lagoons. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  61. Harrison, P. G. andK. H. Mann. 1975. Chemical changes during the seasonal cycle of growth and decay in eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Atlantic coast of Canada.Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32:615–621.Google Scholar
  62. Heck, Jr.,K. L., K. W. Able, M. P. Fahay, andC. T. Roman. 1989. Fishes and decapod crustaceans of Cape Cod eelgras meadows: Species composition, seasonal abundance patterns and comparison with unvegetated substrates.Estuaries 12:59–65.Google Scholar
  63. Heck, Jr.,K. L., K. W. Able, C. T. Roman, andM. P. Fahay. 1995. Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: Comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats.Estuaries 18: 379–389.Google Scholar
  64. Heck, Jr.,K. L. andT. A. Thoman. 1984. The nursery role of seagrass meadows in the upper and lower reaches of the Chesapeake Bay.Estuaries 7:70–92.Google Scholar
  65. Hetling, L. J., N. A. Jaworski, andD. J. Garretson. 1999. Comparison of nutrient input loading and riverine export fluxes in large watersheds.Water Science and Technology 39:189–196.Google Scholar
  66. Hoff, J. G. andR. M. Ibara. 1977. Factors affecting the seasonal abundance, composition and diversity of fishes in a southeastern New England estuary.Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 5:665–678.Google Scholar
  67. Howes, B. L., P. K. Weiskel, D. D. Goehringer, andJ. M. Teal. 1996. Interception of freshwater and nitrogen transport from uplands to coastal waters: The role of saltmarshes, p. 287–310.In K. F. Nordstrom and C. T. Roman (eds.), Estuarine Shores, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  68. Isaji, T., M. L. Spaulding, andJ. Stace. 1985. Tidal exchange between a coastal lagoon and offshore waters.Estuaries 8:203–216.Google Scholar
  69. Jacobson, H. A. andG. L. Jacobson, Jr. 1989. Variability of vegetation in tidal marshes of Maine, U.S.A..Canadian Journal of Botany 67:230–238.Google Scholar
  70. Jacobson, H. A., G. L. Jacobson, Jr., andJ. T. Kelley. 1987. Distribution and abundance of tidal marshes along the coast of Marine.Estuaries 10:126–131.Google Scholar
  71. Jaworski, N. A., R. W. Howarth, andL. J. Hetling. 1997. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides onto the landscape contributes to coastal eutrophication in the northeast United States.Environmental Science and Technology 31:1995–2004.Google Scholar
  72. Josselyn, M. N. andA. C. Mathieson. 1978. Contribution of receptacles from the fucoidAscophyllum nodosum to the detrital pool of a north temperate estuary.Estuaries 1:258–261.Google Scholar
  73. Josselyn, M. N. andA. C. Mathieson. 1980. Seasonal influx and decomposition of autochthonous macrophyte litter in a north temperate estuary.Hydrobiologia 71:197–208.Google Scholar
  74. Kelley, J. T. 1987. An inventory of coastal environments and classification of Maine's glaciated shoreline, p. 151–176.In D. M. FitzGerald and P. S. Rosen (eds.), Glaciated Coasts. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.Google Scholar
  75. Kelley, J. T., D. F. Belknap, G. L. Jacobson, Jr., andH. A. Jacobson. 1988. The morphology and origin of salt marshes along the glaciated coastline of Maine, USA.Journal of Coastal Research 4:649–665.Google Scholar
  76. Kelley, J. T., A. R. Kelley, D. F. Belknap, andR. C. Shipp. 1986. Variability in the evolution of two adjacent bedrock-framed estuaries in Maine, p. 21–42.In D. A. Wolfe (ed.), Estuarine Variability. academic Press, Inc., Orlando.Google Scholar
  77. Kinney, E. H. andC. T. Roman. 1998. Response of primary producers to nutrient enrichment in a shallow estuary.Marine Ecology Progress Series 163:89–98.Google Scholar
  78. Kiviat, E. 1974. A fresh-water tidal marsh on the Hudson, Tivoli North Bay, paper 14.In 3rd Symposium on Hudson River Ecology. Hudson River Environmental Society, Bronx, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Kneib, R. T. andS. L. Wagner. 1994. Nekton use of vegetated marsh habitats at different stages of tidal inundation.Marine Ecology Progress Series 106:227–238.Google Scholar
  80. Lee, V. andS. Olsen. 1985. Eutrophication and management initiatives for the control of nutrient inputs to Rhode Island coastal lagoons.Estuaries 8:191–202.Google Scholar
  81. Lewis, R. S. andJ. R. Stone. 1991. Late Quaternary stratigraphy and depositional history of the Long Island Sound basin: Connecticut and New York.Journal of Coastal Research 11:1–23.Google Scholar
  82. Lubchenco, J. 1980. Algal zonation in the New England rocky intertial community: An experimental analysis.Ecology 61:333–344.Google Scholar
  83. Mann, K. H. 1972. Ecological energetics of the sea-weed zone in a marine bay on the Atlantic coast of Canada. II. Productivity of the seaweeds.Marine Biology 14:199–209.Google Scholar
  84. Mann, K. H. 1973. Seaweeds: Their productivity and strategy for growth.Science 182:975–981.Google Scholar
  85. McIvor, C. C. andL. P. Rozas. 1996. Direct nekton use of intertidal saltmarsh habitat and linkage with adjacent habitats: A review from the southeastern United States, p. 311–334.In K. F. Nordstrom and C. T. Roman (eds.), Estuarine Shores. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  86. McMaster, R. L. 1984. Holocene stratigraphy and depositional history of the Narragansett Bay system, Rhode Island.Sedimentology 31:777–792.Google Scholar
  87. McPherson, B. F. andR. L. Miller. 1987. The vertical attenuation of light in Charlotte Harbor, a shallow, subtropical estuary, south-western Florida.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 25:721–737.Google Scholar
  88. Metzler, K. J. andR. W. Tiner. 1992. Wetlands of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory. Hartford, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  89. Miller, W. B. andF. E. Egler. 1950. Vegetation of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal-marshes, Connecticut.Ecological Monographs 20:143–172.Google Scholar
  90. Millham, N. P. andB. L. Howes. 1994. Freshwater flow into a coastal embayment: Groundwater and surface water inputs.Limnology and Oceanography 39:1928–1944.Google Scholar
  91. Milne, L. J. andM. J. Milne. 1951. The eelgrass catastrophe.Scientific American 184:52–55.Google Scholar
  92. Mulkana, M. S. 1966. The growth and feeding habits of juvenile fishes in two Rhode Island estuaries.Gulf Research Reports 2: 97–167.Google Scholar
  93. Muehlstein, L. K., D. Porter, andF. T. Short. 1991.Labyrinthula zosterae sp. Nov., the causative agent of wasting disease of eelgrass.Zostera marina.Mycologia 83:180–191.Google Scholar
  94. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1990. Estuaries of the United States, Vital Statistics of a National Resource Base. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Rockville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  95. Newell, C. R., H. Hidu, B. J. McAlice, G. Podniesinski, F. Short, andL. Kindblom. 1991. Recruitment and commercial seed procurement of the blue musselMytilus edulis in Maine.Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 22:134–152.Google Scholar
  96. Niering, W. A. andR. S. Warren. 1974. Tidal Wetlands of Connecticut: Volume 1, Vegetation and Associated Animal Populations. Technical Report, Department of Environmental Protection, State of Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  97. Niering, W. A. andR. S. Warren. 1980. Vegetation patterns and processes on New England salt marshes.BioScience 30:301–307.Google Scholar
  98. Nixon, S. W. 1992. The Ecology of New England High Salt Marshes: A Community Profile. FWS/OBS-81/55. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  99. Nixon, S. W. 1986. Nutrient dynamics and productivity in marine coastal waters, p. 97–115.In R. Halwagy, D. Clayton, and M. Behbehani (eds.), Marine Environment and Pollution. The Alden Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  100. Nixon, S. W. 1995a. Metal Inputs to Narragansett Bay: A History and Assessment of Recent Conditions. Rhode Island Sea Grant, Narragansett, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  101. Nixon, S. W. 1995b. Coastal marine eutrophication: A definition, social causes, and future concerns.Ophelia 41:199–219.Google Scholar
  102. Nixon, S. W. 1997. Prehistoric nutrient inputs and productivity in Narragansett Bay.Estuaries 20:253–261.Google Scholar
  103. Nixon, S. W. andC. A. Oviatt. 1973. Ecology of a New England salt marsh.Ecological Monographs 43:463–498.Google Scholar
  104. Nordstrom, K. F. 1992. Estuarine Beaches. Elsevier Science Publishers, Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  105. Nowicki, B. L., E. Requintina, D. VanKeuren, andJ. Portnoy. 1999. The role of sediment denitrification in reducing groundwater-derived nitrate inputs to Nauset Marsh estuary, Cape Cod, Massachusetts.Estuaries 22:245–259.Google Scholar
  106. Odum, W. E., T. J. Smith III,J. K. Hoover, andC. C. McIvor. 1984. The Ecology of Tidal Freshwater Marshes of the United States East Coast: A Community Profile. FWS/OBS-83/17. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  107. Oldale, R. N. 1992. Cape Cod and the Islands, the Geologic Story. Parnassus Imprints, East Orleans, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  108. Olsen, S., D. D. Robadue, Jr., andV. Lee. 1980. An Interpretive Atlas of Narragansett Bay. Marine Bulletin 40, Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  109. Orson, R. A. andB. L. Howes. 1992. Salt marsh development studies at Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts: Influence of geomorphology on long-term plant community structure.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 35:453–471.Google Scholar
  110. Orson, R. A., R. S. Warren, andW. A. Niering. 1987. Development of a tidal marsh in a New England river valley.Estuaries 10:20–27.Google Scholar
  111. Orth, R. J., M. Luchenbach, andK. A. Moore. 1994. Seed dispersal in a marine macrophyte: Implications for colonization and restoration.Ecology 75:1927–1939.Google Scholar
  112. Peckol, P. andJ. S. Rivers. 1996. Contribution of macroalgal mats to primary production of a shallow embayment under high and low nitrogen-loading rates,Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 43:311–325.Google Scholar
  113. Peterson, G. W. andR. E. Turner. 1994. The value of salt marsh edge vs interior as a habitat for fish and decapod crustaceans in a Louisiana tidal marsh.Estuaries 17:235–262.Google Scholar
  114. Pethick, J. S. 1996. The geomorphology of mudflats, p. 185–211.In K. F. Nordstrom and C. T. Roman (eds), Estuarine Shores. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  115. Pettigrew, N. R., D. A. Kistner, G. P. Barbin, A. K. Laursen, D. W. Townsend, andJ. Christensen. 1997. Somes Sound: Fjord or well-mixed estuary?Northeastern Naturalist 4:35–44.Google Scholar
  116. Pielou, E. C. andR. D. Routledge. 1976. Salt marsh vegetation: Latitudinal gradients in the zonation patterns.Oecologia 24: 311–321.Google Scholar
  117. Pohle, D. G., B. M. Bricelj, andZ. Gardia-Esquivel. 1991. The eelgrass canopy: An above-bottom refuge from benthic predators for juvenile bay scallops,Argopecten irradians.Marine Ecology Progress Series 74:47–59.Google Scholar
  118. Portnoy, J. W. 1999. Salt marsh diking and restoration: Biogeochemical implications of altered wetland hydrology.Environmental Management 24:111–120.Google Scholar
  119. Portnoy, J. W., B. L. Nowicki, C. T. Roman, andD. W. Urish. 1998. The discharge of nitrate-contaminated groundwater from developed shoreline to marsh-fringed estuary.Water Resources Research 34:3095–3104.Google Scholar
  120. Pritchard, D. W. 1967a. What is an estuary: Physical viewpoint, p. 3–5.In G. H. Lauff (ed.), Estuaries. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publication No. 83, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  121. Pritchard, D. W. 1967b. Observations of circulation in coastal plain estuaries, p. 37–44.In G. H. Lauff (ed.), Estuaries. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publication No. 83, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  122. Rasmussen, E. 1977. The wasting disease of eelgrass (Zostera marina) and its effects on environmental factors and fauna, p. 1–52.In C. P. McRoy and C. Helfferich (eds.), Seagrass Ecosystems: A Scientific Perspective. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  123. Redfield, A. C. 1965. The ontogeny of a salt marsh estuary.Science 147:50–55.Google Scholar
  124. Redfield, A. C. 1972. Development of a New England salt marsh.Ecological Monographs 42:201–237.Google Scholar
  125. Reimold R. J. 1977. Mangals and salt marshes of the eastern United States, p. 157–164.In V. J. Chapman (ed.), Wet Coastal Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., New York.Google Scholar
  126. Reise, K. 1985. Tidal Flat Ecology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  127. Renn, C. E. 1934. Wasting disease ofZostera in American waters.Nature 134:416.Google Scholar
  128. Richardson, F. D. 1980. Ecology ofRuppia maritima L. in New Hampshire (USA) tidal marshes.Rhodora 82:403–439.Google Scholar
  129. Roman, C. T. andK. W. Able. 1988. Production ecology of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in a Cape Cod salt marsh-estuarine system, Massachusetts.Aquatic Botany 32:353–363.Google Scholar
  130. Roman, C. T., R. A. Garvine, andJ. W. Portnoy. 1995. Hydrologic modeling as a predictive basis for ecological restoration of salt marshes.Environmental Management 19:559–566.Google Scholar
  131. Roman, C. T., W. A. Niering, andR. S. Warren. 1984. Salt marsh vegetation change in response to tidal restriction.Environmental Management 8:141–150.Google Scholar
  132. Roman, C. T., J. A. Peck, J. R. Allen, J. W. King, andP. G. Appleby. 1997. Accretion of a New England (USA) salt marsh in response to inlet migration, storms, and sea-level rise.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 45:717–727.Google Scholar
  133. Rountree, R. A. andK. W. Able. 1992. Fauna of polyhaline subtidal marsh creeks in southern New Jersey: Composition, abundance and biomass.Estuaries 15:171–185.Google Scholar
  134. Rozsa, R. 1995. Human impacts on tidal wetlands: History and regulations, p. 42–50.In G. D. Dreyer and W. A. Niering (eds.), Tidal Marshes of Long Island Sound: Ecology, History and Restoration. Bulletin 34, Connecticut College Arboretum, New London, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  135. Ryther, J. H. andW. M. Dunstan. 1971. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and eutrophication in the coastal marine environment.Science 171:1008–1013.Google Scholar
  136. Schenck, H., Jr. andA. Davis. 1973. A turbidity survey of Narragansett Bay.Ocean Engineering 2:169–178.Google Scholar
  137. Short, F. T. (ed.). 1992. The Ecology of the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire and Maine: An Estuarine Profile and Bibliography. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Coastal Ocean Program Publication. Silver Spring, Maryland.Google Scholar
  138. Short, F. T. andD. M. Burdick. 1996. Quantifying eelgrass habitat loss in relation to housing development and nitrogen loading in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts.Estuaries 19:730–739.Google Scholar
  139. Short, F. T., D. M. Burdick, S. Granger, and S. W. Nixon. 1996. Long-term decline in eelgrass,Zostera marina L., linked to increased housing development, p. 291–298.In J. Kuo, R. C. Phillips, D. I. Walker, and H. Kirkman (eds.), Seagrass Biology: Proceedings of an International Workshop. Rottnest Island, Western Australia.Google Scholar
  140. Short, F. T., D. M. Burdick, andJ. E. Kaldy III. 1995. Mesocosm experiments quantify the effects of eutrophication on eelgrass,Zostera marina L..Limnology and Oceanography 40:740–749.Google Scholar
  141. Short, F. T., D. M. Burdick, C. A. Short, R. C. Davis, andP. A. Morgan. 2000. Developing success criteria for restored eelgrass, salt marsh and mud flat habitats.Ecological Engineering 15:239–252.Google Scholar
  142. Short, F. T., D. M. Burdick, J. Wolf, andG. E. Jones. 1993. Eelgrass in Estuarine Research Reserves Along the East Coast, U.S.A., Part I: Declines from Pollution and Disease, Part II: Management of Eelgrass Meadows. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Coastal Ocean Program Publication. Silver Spring, Maryland.Google Scholar
  143. Short, F. T., A. C. Mathieson, andJ. I. Nelson. 1986. Recurrence of eelgrass wasting disease at the border of New Hampshire and Maine, USA.Marine Ecology Progress Series 29:89–92.Google Scholar
  144. Short, F. T. andH. A. Neckles. 1999. The effects of global climate change on seagrasses.Aquatic Botany 63:169–196.Google Scholar
  145. Sinicrope, T. L., P. G. Hine, R. S. Warren, andW. A. Niering. 1990. Restoration of an impounded salt marsh in New England.Estuaries 13:25–30.Google Scholar
  146. Sirois, D. L. andS. W. Fredrick. 1978. Phytoplankton and primary production in the lower Hudson River Estuary.Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 7:413–423.Google Scholar
  147. Sogard, S. M. andK. W. Able. 1991. A comparison of eelgrass, sea lettuce macroalgae, and marsh creeks as habitats for epibenthic fishes and decapods.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 33:501–519.Google Scholar
  148. Stevenson, J. C., M. S. Kearney, andE. C. Pendleton. 1985. Sedimentation and erosion in a Chesapeake Bay brackish marsh system.Marine Geology 67:213–235.Google Scholar
  149. Targett, T. E. andJ. D. McCleave. 1974. Summer abundance of fishes in a Maine tidal cove with special reference to temperature.Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 2:325–330.Google Scholar
  150. Taylor, D. I., S. W. Nixon, S. L. Granger, B. A. Buckley, J. P. McMahon, andH. J. Lin. 1995. Responses of coastal lagoon plant communities to different forms of nutrient enrichment—A mesocosm experiment.Aquatic Botany 52:19–34.Google Scholar
  151. Teal, J. M. 1986. The Ecology of Regularly Flooded Salt Marshes of New England: A Community Profile. Biological report 85(7.4). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  152. Thayer, G. W. 1971. Phytoplankton production and the distribution of nutrients in a shallow unstratified estuarine system near Beaufort, N.C.Chesapeake Science 12:240–253.Google Scholar
  153. Thayer, G. W., W. J. Kenworthy, andM. S. Fonseca. 1984. The Ecology of Eelgrass Meadows of the Atlantic Coast: A Community Profile. FWS/OBS-84/02. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  154. Thompson, M. J., L. E. Gilliland, andL. K. Rosenfeld. 1979. Light scattering and extinction in a highly turbid coastal inlet.Estuaries 2:164–171.Google Scholar
  155. Thorne-Miller, B., M. M. Harlin, G. B. Thursby, M. M. Brady-Campbell, andB. A. Dworetzky. 1983. Variations in the distribution and biomass of submerged macrophytes in five coastal lagoons in Rhode Island, U.S.A.Botanica Marina 26: 231–242.Google Scholar
  156. Tiner, Jr.R. W. 1985a. Wetlands of New Jersey. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Newton Corner, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  157. Tiner, Jr.R. W. 1985b. Wetlands of Delaware. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Newton Corner, MA and Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Wetlands Section. Dover, Delaware.Google Scholar
  158. Tiner, Jr.,R. W. 1989. Wetlands of Rhode Island. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Newton Corner, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  159. Topinka, J., L. Tucker, andW. Korjeff. 1981. The distribution of fucoid macroalgal biomass along the central coast of Maine.Botanica Marina 24:311–319.Google Scholar
  160. Turner, R. E. 1977. Intertidal vegetation and commercial yields of panaeid shrimp.Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106:411–416.Google Scholar
  161. Turner, R. E. 1997. Wetland loss in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Multiple working hypotheses.Estuaries 20:1–13.Google Scholar
  162. Uchupi, E., G. S. Giese, D. G. Aubrey, andD. J. Kim. 1996. The Late Quaternary Construction of Cape Cod. Massachusetts: A Reconsideration of the W. M. Davis Model. Special Paper 309. The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  163. Vadas, R. L. andB. Beal. 1987. Green algal ropes: A novel estuarine phenomenon in the Gulf of Maine.Estuaries 10: 171–176.Google Scholar
  164. Valiela, I., G. Collins, J., Kremer, K. Lajtha, M. Geist, B. Seely, J. Brawley, andC. H. Sham. 1997. Nitrogen loading from coastal watersheds to receiving estuaries: New method and application.Ecological Applications 7:358–380.Google Scholar
  165. Valiela, I. andJ. E. Costa. 1988. Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a Cape Cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets.Environmental Management 12:539–553.Google Scholar
  166. Valiela, I., J. Costa, K. Foreman, J. M. Teal, B. Howes, andD. Aubrey. 1990. Transport of groundwater-borne nutrients from watersheds and their effects on coastal waters.Biogeochemistry 10:177–197.Google Scholar
  167. Valiela, I., K. Foreman, M. LaMontagne, D. Hersh, J. Costa, P. Peckol, B. DeMeo-Anderson, C. D'Avanzo, M., Babione, C. H. Sham, J. Brawley, andK. Lajtha. 1992. Couplings of watersheds and coastal waters: Sources and consequences of nutrient enrichment in Waquoit Bay, Massachuestts.Estuaries 15:443–457.Google Scholar
  168. Valiela, I. andJ. M. Teal. 1979. The nitrogen budget of a salt marsh ecosystem.Nature 280:652–656.Google Scholar
  169. Warren, R. S. andW. A. Niering. 1993. Vegetation change on a northeast tidal marsh: Interaction of sea-level rise and marsh accretion.Ecology 74:96–103.Google Scholar
  170. Weinstein, M. P. 1979. Shallow marsh habitats as primary nurseries for fishes and shellfish, Cape Fear River, North Carolina.Fishery Bulletin 77:339–357.Google Scholar
  171. Weiskel, P. K. andB. L. Howes. 1992. Differential transport of sewage-derived nitrogen and phophorus through a coastal watershed.Environmental Science and Technology 26:352–360.Google Scholar
  172. Welsh, B. L. 1980. Comparative nutrient dynamics of a marshmudflat ecosystem.Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 10: 143–164.Google Scholar
  173. Werme, C. E. 1981. Resource partitioning in a salt marsh fish community. Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  174. Whitlatch, R. B. 1982. The Ecology of New England Tidal Flats: A Community Profile. FWS/OBS-81/01. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  175. Wood, M. E., J. T. Kelly., andD. F. Belknap. 1989. Patterns of sediment accumulation in the tidal marshes of Maine.Estuaries 12:237–246.Google Scholar
  176. Zimmerman, R. J. andT. J. Minello. 1984. Densities ofPenaeus aztecus, Penaeus stiferus, and other natant macrofauna in a Texas salt marsh.Estuaries 7:421–433.Google Scholar

Sources of Unpublished Materials

  1. Hetling, L. J. and N. A. Jaworski. In preparation. Impact of human activities on the riverine export fluxes and source apportionment of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chorides and sulfate: Landscape loadings from watersheds of the northeast, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Jaworski, N. A. and L. J. Hetling. In preparation. Mass balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sulfate for 15 benchmark watersheds of the mid-Atlantic and northeast, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Estuarine Research Federation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles T. Roman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Norbert Jaworski
    • 2
  • Frederick T. Short
    • 3
  • Stuart Findlay
    • 4
  • R. Scott Warren
    • 5
  1. 1.USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Graduate School of OceanographyUniversity of Rhode IslandNarragansett
  2. 2.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencySanford
  3. 3.Jackson Estuarine LaboratoryUniversity of New HampshireDurham
  4. 4.Institute of Ecosystem StudiesMillbrook
  5. 5.Department of BotanyConnecticut CollegeNew London

Personalised recommendations