Toxicological and physiological responses of the fish,Leiostomus xanthurus, exposed to chlorine produced oxidants
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The sublethal and lethal effects of chlorine produced oxidants (CPO) on juveniles of the estuarine teleost,Leiostomus xanthurus, were investigated in flowing water tests conducted at 30 ±1°C and 26 to 31‰ salinity. Short-term LT50 tests were conducted at two nominal concentrations of NaOCl, 1.0 and 1.4 mg/l (respective measured CPO concentrations 0.09 and 0.12 mg/l) which were sublethal in 2,880 minute exposures; and three nominal concentrations, 1.6, 1.8 and 3.2 mg/l NaOCl (respective measured CPO concentrations 0.13, 0.20 and 0.37 mg/l) which were acutely toxic.
Opercular ventilation rates in exposed spot were much higher than in control fish, but returned to rates only slightly above those of controls during the latter portion of the 2,880 minute exposure to the two sublethal CPO concentrations. Opercular rates at the three acutely toxic CPO concentrations remained much higher than control rates until the exposed fish died.
Blood pH after 2,880 minutes of exposure to the sublethal concentrations of CPO; or at the respective estimated LT50 for lethal concentrations, showed significant decreases (\(\bar X\) as low as 6.84) compared to controls\((\bar X 7.35)\). No significant changes in the % methemoglobin were observed.
Oxygen uptake by spot was depressed at all of the measured concentrations of CPO tested. Histopathological examination showed that gill respiratory epithelial tissues sloughed away from the underlying pillar cells. Complete denudation of circulatory tissues and hemangiectic secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues from fish exposed to the highest CPO concentration of 0.37 mg/l.
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