Chesapeake Science

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 125–128 | Cite as

The toxicity of malathion and its hydrolysis products to the Eastern Mudminnow,Umbra pygmaea (DeKay)

  • Michael E. Bender
  • James R. Westman
Short Papers and Notes


The toxicity of malathion and its major hydrolysis products to the eastern mudminnow,Umbra pygmaea, was determined by utilizing 4-day static toxicity tests and 14-day continuous flow tests. Four-day LC50 values in mg/l were as follows: malathion 0.24; dimethylphosphorodithioic acid 17; diethyl fumarate 8.5; 2-mercaptodiethylsuccinate 47 and dimethylphosphorothionic acid 26. The basic hydrolysis products proved to be more toxic than the acid hydrolysis products and 14-day continuous flow tests were conducted only on malathion and the basic hydrolysis products. Calculations of field application rates for the pesticide reviewed in light of the toxicity results suggest that only the parent compound, malathion, poses an environmental hazard to the mudminnow.


Hydrolysis Product Malathion Fathead Minnow Gloucester Point LC50 Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. American Public Health Association. 1960. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. Eleventh Ed., American Public Health Association, New York, N.Y. 626 p.Google Scholar
  2. Bender, M. E. 1968. The effect of malathion on fishes. Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University. 97 p.Google Scholar
  3. — 1969. The toxicity of the hydrolysis and breakdown products of malathion to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque).Water Res. 3(4):571–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burdick, G. E. 1967. Use of bioassays in determining levels of toxic wastes harmful to aquatic organisms. Am. Fish. Soc. Special Publication No. 4:7–12.Google Scholar
  5. Hoff, J. G., andJ. R. Westman. 1965. Experiments with a dibrom-malathion formulation as a selective piscicide.New York Fish and Game J. 12:99–107.Google Scholar
  6. Litchfield, J. T., andF. Wilcoxon. 1949. A simplified method of evaluating dose effect experiments.J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therap. 96(1):99.Google Scholar
  7. Macek, K. J., andW. A. McAllister. 1970. Insecticide susceptibility of some common fish family representatives.Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 99(1):20–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mount, D. I., andW. A. Brungs. 1967. A simplified dosing apparatus for fish toxicological studies.Water Res. 1(1):21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. —, andC. E. Stephan. 1967. A method for establishing acceptable toxicant limits for fish-malathion and the butoxyethanol ester of 2,4D.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 96(2):85–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Muhlmann, V. R., andG. Schroder. 1957. Hydrolyse der insekliziden phosphorsaureester.Z. Naturforscg. 12:196–208.Google Scholar
  11. Mulla, M. S., J. S. Amant, andL. D. Anderson. 1967. Evaluation of organic pesticides for possible use as fish toxicants.Prog. Fish-Cult. 29(1):36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pickering, Q. H., C. Henderson, andA. E. Lemke. 1962. The toxicity of organic phosphorus insecticides to different species of warm water fishes.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 91(2):175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Tarzwell, C. M. 1958. The toxicity of some organic insecticides to fishes. Proc. of the Twelfth Annual Conference, Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners: 233–239.Google Scholar
  14. Tarzwell, C. M. 1963. Harards of pesticides to fishes and the aquatic environment. From: Pesticides—their use and effect. Proc. Symp. N. Y. Legis. Commit. on Nat. Resources.Google Scholar
  15. Weiss, C. M., and J. H. Gakstatter. 1965. The decay of anticholinesterase activity of organic phosphorus insecticides on storage in waters of different pH. The Proceedings of the Second International Water Pollution Research Conference. Tokyo 1964:83–99.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Bender
    • 1
  • James R. Westman
    • 1
  1. 1.Rutgers UniversityNew Brunswick

Personalised recommendations