Brittonia

, 47:61 | Cite as

Comparative capitular morphology and anatomy of Coreopsis L. and bidens L. (compositae), including a review of generic boundaries

  • Mesfin Tadesse
  • Daniel J. Crawford
  • E. B. Smith
Articles

Abstract

The capitular and floral morphology and anatomy ofBidens L. andCoreopsis L. were studied. All the North American species ofCoreopsis were studied. Selected species ofBidens from North and South America andCoreopsis from South America were included. The results were compared with previous observations on African species ofBidens (incl.Coreopsis). Emphasis was given to character states of the ray florets, paleae, stylearm apices, outer phyllaries, achenes, and pollen grains. Some of the character states are unique features ofCoreopsis, e.g., globular and elongately conical receptacles, deltoid outer phyllaries, truncate and indistinctly 3–5-dentate, 3–4-lobed ray florets, narrowly spathulate paleae, subulate paleae with linear-filiform upper half, hairy and apically 3-cleft paleae, truncate, convex or shallowly conical stylearm apices with the sweeping hairs limited to the area above the stigmatic surfaces and the orbicular to circular achenes. The cylindric setaceous pappus bristles so commonly encountered inBidens are unknown inCoreopsis. The pappus bristles inCoreopsis are paleaceous but similar, though thicker ones are also found in African species ofBidens (incl.Coreopsis) with winged achenes. Twin-celled hairs (setulae) with differing degrees of wall thickness are found on the achenes ofCoreopsis sect.Pseudoagarista (Mexico and South America),Coreopsis sect.Pugiopappus (California), AfricanBidens with winged achenes (e.g.,B. prestinaria, B. macroptera) and some North AmericanBidens (e.g.,B. aristosa). Similar sclerotic parenchyma make up the achenial wings of species in both genera. These may be interpreted as homologous structures, indicating the underlying similarity of these taxa and their derivation from a common ancestral stock.

Key words

Coreopsis Bidens generic concept morphology anatomy Compositae 

Literature Cited

  1. Agnew, A. D. Q. 1974. Upland Kenya wild flowers. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  2. Baggoe, J. 1974. The genusGuizotia (Compositae). A taxonomic revision. Bot. Tidskr. 69: 1–39.Google Scholar
  3. Ballard, R. E. 1986.Bidens pilosa complex (Asteraceae) in North and Central America. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 1452–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cabrera, A. L. 1977. Mutisieae—systematic review. Pages 1039–1066.In: V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne & B. L. Turner, editors. The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  5. Carlquist, S. 1966. The biota of long-distance dispersal. II. Loss of dispersibility in Pacific Compositae. Evolution 20: 30–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassini, A. G. H. de. 1826. Opuscles phytologiques. F. G. Levrault, Paris.Google Scholar
  7. Crawford, D. J. 1969a. Systematic studies on MexicanCoreopsis (sect.Anathysana), with special reference to the relationship betweenC. cyclocarpa andC. pinnatisecta. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 97: 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. — 1969b. A new species ofCoreopsis (Compositae) from Mexico. Brittonia 21: 353–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. — 1970. Systematic studies on MexicanCoreopsis (Compositae).Coreopsis mutica: flavonoid chemistry, chromosome numbers, morphology, and hybridization. Brittonia 22: 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. — 1971. Systematics of theCoreopsis petrophiloides-lucida-teotepensis complex. Amer. J. Bot. 58: 361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. — 1972. The morphology and flavonoid chemistry of synthetic infraspecific hybrids inCoreopsis mutica (Compositae). Taxon 21: 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. — 1976. Taxonomy ofCoreopsis sect.Pseudoagarista (Compositae) in Mexico with additional comments on sectional relationships in MexicanCoreopsis. Brittonia 28: 329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. — 1978. Okanin 4′-o-diglucoside fromCoreopsis petrophiloides and comments on Anthochlors and evolution inCoreopsis. Phytochemistry 17: 1680–1681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. — 1981. A new variety ofCoreopsis mutica (Compositae) from Mexico. Brittonia 33: 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. — 1982. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes for MexicanCoreopsis, sectionsElectra andPseudoagarista (Compositae: Heliantheae). Brittonia 34: 384–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. — &R. J. Bayer. 1981. Allozyme divergence inCoreopsis cyclocarpa (Compositae). Syst. Bot. 6: 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. — &E. B. Smith. 1980. Flavonoid chemistry ofCoreopsis grandiflora (Compositae). Brittonia 32: 154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ——. 1982a. Allozyme divergence betweenCoreopsis basalis andC. wrightii (Compositae). Syst. Bot. 7: 359–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ——. 1982b. Allozyme variation inCoreopsis nuecensoides andC. nuecensis (Compositae), a progenitor-derivative species pair. Evolution 36: 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ——. 1983a. Leaf flavonoid chemistry of North AmericanCoreopsis (Compositae): intra-and inter-sectional variation. Bot. Gaz. 144: 577–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. ——. 1983b. The distribution of anthochlor floral pigments in North AmericanCoreopsis (Compositae): taxonomic and phyletic interpretations. Amer. J. Bot. 70: 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ——. 1984a. Allozyme divergence and infraspecific variation inCoreopsis grandiflora (Compositae). Syst. Bot. 9: 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. ——. 1984b. Leaf flavonoid chemistry and the taxonomy ofCoreopsis sectionsPugiopappus andEuleptosyne (Compositae). Madrono 31: 1–7.Google Scholar
  24. ——. 1985. Leaf flavonoid chemistry and taxonomy ofCoreopsis sect.Coreopsis. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 13: 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. — &T. F. Stuessy. 1981. The taxonomic significance of anthochlors in the subtribe Coreopsidinae (Compositae, Helinantheae). Amer. J. Bot. 68: 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. — &R. Whitkus. 1988. Allozyme divergence and the mode of speciation forCoreopsis gigantea andC. maritima (Compositae). Syst. Bot. 13: 256–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. J. F. Palmer &M. Kobayashi. 1990. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and the phylogeny of Coreopsis sectionCoreopsis (Asteraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 77: 552–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ———. 1991. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation, phylogenetic relationships, and character evolution among sections of North AmericanCoreopsis (Asteraceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ———. 1991. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation, phylogenetic relationships, and character evolution among sections of North AmericanCoreopsis (Asteraceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ———. 1992. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and the evolution of the annual habit in North AmericanCoreopsis (Asteraceae). Pages 280–294.In: P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis & J. J. Doyle, editors. Molecular systematics of plants. Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  31. —,B. J. Post &R. Whitkus. 1988. Allozyme variation within and between populations ofCoreopsis latifolia (Asteraceae). Pl. Syst. Biol. 3: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. —,E. B. Smith &A. M. Mueller. 1980. Leaf flavonoid chemistry ofCoreopsis (Compositae) sectionPalmatae. Brittonia 32: 452–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. —— &R. E. Pilatowski. 1984. Isozymes ofCoreopsis sectionCalliopsis (Compositae): genetic variation within and divergence among the species. Brittonia 36: 375–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ——,M. L. Roberts, M. Benkowski &M. Hoffman. 1990. Phylogenetic implications of differences in number of plastid phosphoglucose isomerase isozymes in North AmericanCoreopsis (Asteraceae: Heliantheae: Coreopsidinae). Amer. J. Bot. 77: 54–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cronquist, A. 1955. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Compositae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 53: 478–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. — 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Cufodontis, G. 1953–1972. Enumeratio plantarum Aethiopiae. Spermatophyta. Reprint. 2 vols. Jardin Botanique National de Belgiques, sequentia.Google Scholar
  38. Erdtman, G. 1971. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy, Hafner, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Ganders, F. R. &K. M. Nagata. 1983. New taxa and new combinations in HawaiianBidens (Asteraceae). Lyonia 2: 1–16.Google Scholar
  40. ——. 1984. The role of hybridization in the evolution ofBidens on the Hawaiian Islands. Pages 179–194.In: W. F. Grant, editor. Plant biosystematics. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Gillett, G. W. 1972. Genetic affinities between Hawaiian and MarquesianBidens (Asteraceae). Taxon 21: 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. — 1975. The diversity and history of PolynesianBidens, sectionCampylotheca. University of Hawaii, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  43. — &E. K. S. Lim. 1970. An experimental study of the genusBidens (Asteraceae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 56: 1–63.Google Scholar
  44. Gray, A. 1862. Characters of some Compositae in the collection of the United States South Pacific exploring expedition under Captain Wilkes with observations, etc. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 114–146.Google Scholar
  45. Hart, C. R. 1979. The systematics of theBidens ferulaefolia complex (Compositae). Syst. Bot. 4: 130–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Helenurm, K. &F. R. Ganders. 1985. Adaptive radiation and genetic differentiation in HawaiianBidens. Evolution 39: 753–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holmgren, P. K., N. H. Holmgren &L. C. Barnett. 1990. Inex herbariorum. Ed. 8. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.Google Scholar
  48. Jansen, R. K., E. B. Smith &D. J. Crawford. 1987. A cladistic study of North AmericanCoreopsis (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 157: 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jeffrey, C. 1986. Notes on Compositae, IV. TheSenecioneae in east tropical Africa. Kew Bull. 41: 873–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. —,P. Halliday, M. Wilmot-Dear &S. W. Jones. 1977. Generic and sectional limits inSenecio (Compositae): I. Progress Report. Kew Bull. 32: 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, S. B. 1977. Vernonieae—systematic review. Pages 503–521.In: V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne & B. J. Turner, editors. The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  52. Karis, P. O. 1993. Heliantheae sensu lato (Asteraceae), clades and classification. Pl. Syst. Evol. 188: 139–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. — &O. Ryding. 1994. TribeHeliantheae. Pages 559–624.In: K. Bremer. Asteraceae—cladistics and classification. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  54. McVaugh, R. 1984.Compositae. Pages 1–1157.In: W. R. Anderson, editor. Flora Novo-Galiciana. Vol. 12. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  55. Melchert, T. F. 1990a.Cosmos ocellatus, aBidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae). Phytologia 69(6): 436–444.Google Scholar
  56. — 1990b.Bidens colimana (Asteraceae), a new white rayed perennial from Jalisco, Mexico. Phytologia 69(6): 459–463.Google Scholar
  57. — &B. L. Turner. 1990. New species, names, and combinations in MexicanBidens (Asteraceae: Coreopsideae). Phytologia 68(6): 20–31.Google Scholar
  58. Mesfin Tadesse. 1983.Bidens Burundiensis, a new species ofBidens (Compositae-Heliantheae) from Burundi. Nordic J. Bot. 3: 539–542.Google Scholar
  59. —. 1984a. The genusBidens (Compositae) in N.E. Tropical Africa. Acta Univ. Ups. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 24(1): VIII +138 pp. Uppsala.Google Scholar
  60. — 1984b.Microlecane (Sch. Bip.) Bentham, a congener ofBidens (Compositae-Heliantheae). Nordic J. Bot. 4: 737–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. —. 1986. The morphological basis for inclusion of African species ofCoreopsis L. inBidens L. (Compositae-Helantheae). Symb. Bot. Upsal. 26(2): 189–203.Google Scholar
  62. —. 1989. A new species ofBidens (Compositae-Heliantheae) from Malawi. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 12: 125–130.Google Scholar
  63. —. 1993. An account ofBidens (Compositae: Heliantheae) for Africa. Kew Bull. 48: 437–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Robinson, H. 1981. A revision of the tribal and subtribal limits of theHeliantheae (Asteraceae). Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 51: 1–102.Google Scholar
  65. Roseman, R. R. 1986. A systematic study ofBidens sectionGreemania in Mexico, Central America, and Jamaica: chemotaxonomy, cytotaxonomy, and phenetics. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Iowa, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  66. — 1990. New species, varieties, and combinations inBidens sectionGreenmania (Asteraceae: Coreopsideae). Phytologia 69(3): 177–188.Google Scholar
  67. Ryding, O. &K. Bremer. 1992. Phylogeny, distribution, and classification of the Coreopsideae (Asteraceae). Syst. Bot. 17: 649–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sagastegui-A., A. 1969. Cuatro especies nuevas de Compuestas Peruanas. Bol. Soc. Arg., Bot. 11(4): 240–250.Google Scholar
  69. — 1970. Tres Compuestas austroamericanas nuevas o criticas. Bol. Soc. Bot. Libertad 2: 73–75.Google Scholar
  70. — &I. Sanchez Vega. 1981. Un nuevo taxon del generoCoreopsis (Compositae). Darwiniana 23: 223–225.Google Scholar
  71. Sherff, E. E. 1936. Revision of the genusCoreopsis. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 11(6): 279–475.Google Scholar
  72. — 1937. The genusBidens. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 11(6): i-ii.Google Scholar
  73. — &E. J. Alexander. 1955. Compositae-Heliantheae-Coreopsidinae. N. Amer. Fl., ser. 2, 2: 1–149.Google Scholar
  74. Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Published by the author, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, E. B. 1972. Lobing of the disk flower corollas in North AmericanCoreopsis (Compositae). Brittonia 24: 87–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. — 1973. A biosystematic study ofCoreopsis saxicola (Compositae). Brittonia 25: 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. — 1975. The chromosome numbers of North AmericanCoreopsis with phyletic interpretations. Bot. Gaz. 136: 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. — 1976. A biosystematic survey ofCoreopsis in eastern United States and Canada. SIDA 6(3): 123–215.Google Scholar
  79. — 1982. Phyletic trends in sectionCoreopsis of the genusCoreopsis (Compositae). Bot. Gaz. 143: 121–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. — 1983a. Phyletic trends in sectionsEublepharis andCalliopsis of the genusCoreopsis (Compositae). Amer. J. Bot. 70: 549–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. — 1983b. Transfer ofCoreopsis congregata (Compositae: Heliantheae) toCoreocarpus. Brittonia 35: 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. — 1983c. A new variety ofCoreopsis californica (Compositae) endemic to Arizona. Brittonia 35: 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. — 1984a. Biosystematic study and typification of the CalifornianCoreopsis (Compositae) sectionsTuckermannia, Pugiopappus, andEuleptosyne. SIDA 10(4): 276–289.Google Scholar
  84. — 1984b. Transfer ofCoreopsis insularis (Compositae: Heliantheae) toCoreocarpus. Brittonia 36: 274–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. — &H. M. Parker. 1971. A biosystematic study ofCoreopsis tinctoria andC. cardaminefolia (Compositae). Brittonia 23: 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. — &D. J. Crawford. 1981. Comparative leaf flavonoid chemistry ofCoreopsis nuecensoides andC. nuecensis (Compositae), a progenitor-derivative species-pair. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stuessy, T. 1988. Generic relationships ofOparanthus andPetrobium, especially with reference toBidens (Compositae, Heliantheae, Coreopsidinae). Brittonia 40: 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wild, H. 1967. The Compositae of the Flora Zambesiaca area, I. Kirkia 6(1): 1–62.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mesfin Tadesse
    • 1
  • Daniel J. Crawford
    • 1
  • E. B. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations