Advertisement

Brittonia

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 203–215 | Cite as

Notes on the vegetation of Amazonia II. The dispersal of plants in Amazonian white sand campinas: The campinas as functional islands

  • Miramy Macedo
  • Ghillean T. Prance
Article

Abstract

The dispersal mechanisms of 37 species of plants which occur on Amazonian white sand campinas were studied. 75.67 percent of the species have the potential for long distance diaspore dispersal, including 59.46 percent which are bird-dispersed. This dispersal disharmony towards long-distance dispersal and especially towards ornithochory is characteristic of islands in general. The campinas of the lower Rio Negro region of Amazonia may be treated biogeographically as islands surrounded by large areas of tropical rain forest. A total of eight dispersal types was observed and details of these mechanisms are presented. The type of germination of many of the species studied is reported for the first time.

Keywords

Rain Forest Dispersal Mechanism Tropical Rain Forest White Sand Rain Forest Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Anderson, A. B., G. T. Prance & B. W. P. Albuquerque. 1975. Estudos sobre a vegetaÇÃo das campinas Amazonicas III. A vegetaÇÃo lenhosa da Campina da Réserva Biologica INPA-SUFRAMA. Acta Amazonica 5(3): 225–246.Google Scholar
  2. Carlquist, S. 1966. The biota of long-distance dispersal, III. Loss of dispersibility in Pacific Compositae. Evolution 20: 30–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. —. 1974. Island Biology. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Carreira, L. M. M. 1976. Morfologia polinica de plantas lenhosas da campina. Acta Amazonica 6(3): 247–269.Google Scholar
  5. Docters van Leeuwen, W. M. 1954. On the biology of some Loranthaceae and the role birds play in their life-history. Beaufortia 4: 105–208.Google Scholar
  6. Ducke, A. 1949. árvores AmazÔnicas e sua propagaÇÃo. Bol. Mus. Paraense Hist. Nat. 10: 81–92.Google Scholar
  7. - & G. A. Black. 1954. Notas sobre a fitogeografia da AmazÔnia Brasileira. Bol. Tecn. Inst. Agron. N. 29.Google Scholar
  8. Gleason, H. & O. F. Cook. 1926. Plant ecology of Porto Rico. Scientific survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Vol. 8.Google Scholar
  9. Heyligers, P. 1963. Vegetation and soil of a white sand savanna in Suriname. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Huber, J. 1910. Mattas e madeiras amazonicas. Bol. Mus. Paraense Hist. Nat. 6: 91–225.Google Scholar
  11. Lisboa, P. L. 1965. ObservaÇÕes gerais e revisÃo bibliográfica sobre as campinas amazonicas de areia branca. Acta Amazonica 5(3): 211–223.Google Scholar
  12. MacArthur, R. H. & E. O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  13. Macedo, M. 1975. DispersÃo de plantas lenhosas de uma campina AmazÔnica. M.S. Thesis 1975.Google Scholar
  14. —. 1977. DispersÃo de plantas lenhosas de uma campina AmazÔnica. Acta Amazonica 7(1), Suplemento: 1–69.Google Scholar
  15. McAtee, W. L. 1947. Distribution of seeds by birds. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 38: 214–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pijl, L. van der. 1972. Principals of dispersal in higher plants. ed. 2, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Prance, G. T. 1973. Gesneriads in the ant gardens of the Amazon. Gloxinian 23: 27–28.Google Scholar
  18. Richards, P. W. 1952. The Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  19. Ridley, H. N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve, Ashford.Google Scholar
  20. Smythe, N. 1970. Relationships between fruiting seasons and seed dispersal methods in a neotropical forest. Amer. Naturalist 104: 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ule, E. 1901. Ameisengarten in Amazonasgebiet. Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Beibl. 68: 45–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miramy Macedo
    • 1
  • Ghillean T. Prance
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade Federal de Mato GrossoCuiabá, Mato GrossoBrazil
  2. 2.The New York Botanical GardenBronx

Personalised recommendations