, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 93–109 | Cite as

How low can it go? declining black-white segregation in A multiethnic context

  • Lauren J. Krivo
  • Robert L. Kaufman
Racial and ethnic inequality


We extend research on whites’ neighborhood contact with blacks, population composition, and prospects for desegregation by developing a new measure of the floor of racial residential segregation under conditions of low black-white contact. The measure incorporates the way in which multi ethnic contexts further constrain levels of black-white segregation. The results show that black-white desegregation is likely when the black population is small, but is unlikely otherwise. Yet, when multiple ethnic groups are sufficiently large, a moderate level of black-white segregation is necessary for whites to maintain low neighborhood contact with blacks, even when the proportion of African Americans is small.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alba, R.D., N.A. Denton, S.J. Leung, and J.R. Logan. 1995. ” Neighborhood Change Under Conditions of Mass Immigration: The New York City Region, 1970-1990.”International Migration Review 29:625–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alba, RD. and J.R Logan. 1993. “Minority Proximity to Whites in Suburbs: An Individual-Level Analysis of Segregation.”American Journal of Sociology 98:1388–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bobo, L. and C.L. Zubrinsky. 1996. “Attitudes on Residential Integration: Perceived Status Differences, Mere In-Group Preference, or Racial Prejudice?”Social Forces 74:883–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, WA.Y. 1991. “Residential Preferences and Neighborhood Racial Segregation: A Test of the Schelling Segregation Model.”Demography 28:1–19..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. — 1992. “Residential Preferences and Residential Choices in a Multi-Ethnic Context.”Demography 29:451–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davis, J.A. and T.W Smith. 1996.General Social Surveys, 19721996. [Machine-Readable Data File]. Chicago: NORC.Google Scholar
  7. Denton, N.A. 1994. “Are African Americans Still Hypersegregated?” Pp. 49–81 inResidential Apartheid: The American Legacy, edited by R.D. Bullard, J.E. Grigsby III, and C. Lee. Los Angeles: CAAS Publicatiorts.Google Scholar
  8. Denton, N.A. and D.S. Massey. 1991. “Patterns of Neighborhood Transition in a Multi-Ethnic World: U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1970-1980.”Demography 28:41–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duncan, O.D. and B. Duncan. 1955. “A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes.”American Sociological Review 20:210–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fannie Mae. 1992. “Discrimination in Housing and Mortgage Markets.” Housing Policy Debate 3(2).Google Scholar
  11. Farley, R 1996. “Racial Differences in the Search for Housing: Do Whites and Blacks Use the Same Techniques to Find Housing?”Housing Policy Debate 7:367–85.Google Scholar
  12. Farley, R. and WH. Frey. 1994. “Changes in the Segregation of Whites From Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society.”American Sociological Review 59:2345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farley, R., C. Steeh, T. Jackson, M. Krysan, and K. Reeves. 1993. “Continued Racial Residential Segregation in Detroit: Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs’ Revisited.”Journal of Housing Research 4:1–38.Google Scholar
  14. Farley, R., C. Steeh, M. Krysan, T. Jackson, and K. Reeves. 1994. ” Stereotypes and Segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit Area.”American Journal of Sociology 100:750–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frey, WH. and R. Farley. 1996. “Latino, Asian, and Black Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Are Multiethnic Metros Different?”Demography 33:35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Galster, G.C. 1986. “More Than Skin Deep: The Effect of Housing Discrimination on the Extent and Pattern of Racial Residential Segregation in the United States.” Pp. 119–38 inHousing Discrimination and Federal Policy, edited by J.M. Goering. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  17. — 1987. “The Ecology of Racial Discrimination in Housing: An Exploratory Model.”Urban Affairs Quarterly 23:84–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. — 1992. “Research on Discrimination in Housing and Mortgage Markets: Assessment and Future Directions.”Housing Policy Debate 3:639–83.Google Scholar
  19. Galster, G.C. and WM. Keeney. 1988. “Race, Residence, Discrimination, and Economic Opportunity: Modeling the Nexus of Urban Racial Phenomena.”Urban Affairs Quarterly 24:87–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Geolytics. 1996.Census CD. Distributed by Geolytics, Inc. New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
  21. Harrison, R.J. and D.H. Weinberg. 1992. “Changes in Racial and Ethnic Residential Segregation, 1980-1990.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Statistical Association, Boston.Google Scholar
  22. Jakubs, J.F. 1977. “Residential Segregation: The Taeuber Index Reconsidered.”Journal of Regional Science 17:281–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. — 1979. “A Consistent Conceptual Definition of the Index of Dissimilarity.”Geographical Analysis 11:315–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. — 1986. “Recent Racial Segregation in U.S. SMSAs.”Urban Geography 7:146–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. James, D.R. and K.E. Taeuber. 1985. “Measures of Segregation.” Pp. 1–32 inSociological Methodology 1985, edited by N.B. Tuma. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  26. Logan, J.R. and R.D. Alba. 1993. “Locational Returns to Human Capital: Minority Access to Suburban Community Resources.”Demography 30:243–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martin, P. and E. Midgley. 1994. “Immigration to the United States: Journey to an Uncertain Destination.”Population Bulletin 49(2):1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Massey, D.S. and N.A. Denton. 1987. “Trends in the Residential Segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians: 1970-1980.”American Sociological Review 52:802–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. — 1988. “The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.”Social Forces 67:281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. — 1989. “Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation Along Five Dimensions.”Demography 26:373–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. — 1993.American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Massey, D.S. and A.B. Gross. 1991. “Explaining Trends in Racial Segregation, 1970-1980.”Urban Affairs Quarterly 27:13–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nyden, P., M. Maly, and J. Lukehart. 1997. “The Emergence of Stable Racially and Ethnically Diverse Urban Communities: A Case Study of Nine U.S. Cities.”Housing Policy Debate 8:491534.Google Scholar
  34. O’Connell, G.E. 1977. “Zelder’s Critique of the Index of Dissimilarity: A Misunderstanding of a Basic Assumption.”Journal of Regional Science 17:285–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Hare, W.P. 1992. “American’s Minorities-The Demographics of Diversity.”Population Bulletin 47(4):1–47.Google Scholar
  36. Rosenbaum, E. 1992. “Race and Ethnicity in Housing: Turnover in New York City, 1978-1987.”Demography 29:467–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schelling, T.C. 1971. “Dynamic Models of Segregation.”The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 1:143–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schuman, H. and L. Bobo. 1988. “Survey-Based Experiments on White Racial Attitudes Towards Residential Integration.”American Journal of Sociology 94:273–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schuman, H., C. Steeh, and L. Bobo. 1985.Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Steinnes, D.N. 1977. “Urban Employment and Residential Segregation: A Conditional Index.”Journal of Regional Science 17:291–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Taeuber, K.E. 1968. “The Effect of Income Redistribution on Racial Residential Segregation.”Urban Affairs Quarterly 4:5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Taeuber, K.E. and A.F. Taeuber. 1965.Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation. and Neighborhood Change. Chicago: Aidine.Google Scholar
  43. Turner, M.A. 1992. “Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets: Lessons From Fair Housing Audits.”Housing Policy Debate 3: 185–215.Google Scholar
  44. Turner, M.A., R.J. Struyk, and J. Yinger. 1991.Housing Discrimination Study: A Synthesis. of Police of Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  45. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1982.1980 Census of Population and Housing, Summary Characteristics for Governmental Units and Standard Metropolitan Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing of fice.Google Scholar
  46. — 1992.1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics, Metropolitan Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing of fice.Google Scholar
  47. — 1993a.1990 Census of Housing, Detailed Housing Characteristics, Metropolitan Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing of fice.Google Scholar
  48. — 1993b.1990 Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, Metropolitan Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing of fice.Google Scholar
  49. White, M.J. 1986. “Segregation and Diversity Measures in Population Distribution.”Population Index 52:198–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yinger, J. 1995.Closed Doors, Opportunities Lost: The Continuing Costs of Housing Discrimination. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  51. Zelder, R.E. 1970. “Residential Desegregation: Can Nothing Be Accomplished?”Urban Affairs Quarterly 5:265–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. — 1972. “Racial Segregation: A Reply.”Journal of Regional Science 12:149–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. — 1977. “On the Measurement of Residential Segregation: Reply.”Journal of Regional Science 17:299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zubrinsky, C.L. and L. Bobo. 1996. “Prismatic Metropolis: Race and Residential Segregation in the City of Angels.”Social Science Research 25:335–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren J. Krivo
    • 1
  • Robert L. Kaufman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyOhio State UniversityColumbus

Personalised recommendations