Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 511–521 | Cite as

The effect of the sex composition of jobs on starting wages in an organization: Findings from the NLSY

  • Paula EnglandEmail author
  • Lori L. Reid
  • Barbara Stanek Kilbourne
Labor Force

Abstract

We show that individuals in a job with a higher percentage of females earn lower starting wages with an employing organization. This holds true with controls for individuals’ human capital, job demands for skill or difficult working conditions, and detailed industry. We use a measure of sex composition that applies to detailed jobs: cells in a three-digit census occupation by three-digit census industry matrix. We use pooled panel data from the 19791987 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The unit of analysis is the spell-the time in which a person worked for one organization. The dependent variable is the first wage in the spell. We use models with fixed-effects to control for unmeasured, unchanging individual characteristics; we also show results from OLS and weighted models for comparison. The negative effect on wages of the percentage female in one’s job is robust across procedures for black women, white women, and white men. For black men the sign is always negative but the coefficient is often nonsignificant.

Keywords

National Longitudinal Survey Wage Penalty Percentage Female Comparable Worth Human Resource Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acker, J. 1989. Doing Comparable Worth: Gender, Class and Pay Equity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, M. and R. Buchele. 1986. The Economics of Comparable Worth. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  3. Baron, J. and A. Newman. 1989. “Pay the Man: Effects of Demographic Composition on Prescribed Wage Rates in the California Civil Service.” Pp. 107–30 in Pay Equity: Empirical Inquiries, edited by R. Michael, H. Hartmann, and B. O’Farrell. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bergmann, B.R. 1971. “The Effect on White Incomes of Discrimination in Employment.” Journal of Political Economy 79:294313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. —. 1986. The Economic Emergence of Women. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Center for Human Resources Research, Ohio State University. 1983. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook: 1983–1984. Columbus, Ohio: Center For Human Resource Research.Google Scholar
  7. —. 1993. NLS Users’ Guide, 1993. Columbus, Ohio: Center For Human Resource Research.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1994. NLS Users’ Guide, 1994. Columbus, Ohio: Center For Human Resource Research.Google Scholar
  9. England, P. 1984. “Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation.” Social Forces 62:726–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. —. 1992. Comparable Worth: Theories and Evidence. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  11. England, P., M. Chassie, and L. McCormick. 1982. “Skill Demands and Earnings in Female and Male Occupations.” Sociology and Social Research 66: 147–68.Google Scholar
  12. England, P., K. Christopher, and L.L. Reid. Forthcoming. “How Do Intersections of Race-Ethnicity and Gender Affect Pay among Young Cohorts of African Americans, European Americans, and Latino/as?” In Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality: African American and Latina Women in the Labor Market, edited by I. Browne. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  13. England, P., G. Farkas, B.S. Kilbourne, and T. Dou. 1988. “Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects.” American Sociological Review 53:544–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. England, P., M.S. Herbert, B.S. Kilbourne, L.L. Reid, and L.M. Megdal. 1994. “The Gendered Valuation of Occupations and Skills: Earnings in 1980 Census Occupations.” Social Forces 73:65–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Filer, R.K. 1983. “Sexual Differences in Earnings: The Role of Individual Personalities and Tastes.” Journal of Human Resources 18:82–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. —. 1989. “Occupational Segregation, Compensating Differentials and Comparable Worth.” Pp. 153–70 in Pay Equity: Empirical Inquiries, edited by R.T. Michael, H.I. Hartmann, and B. O’Farrell. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  17. Freeman, R. 1984. “Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions.” Journal of Labor Economics 2: 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Griliches, Z. 1986. “Economic Data Issues.” Pp. 1465–514 in Handbook of Econometrics, Volume 3, edited by Z. Griliches and M.D. Intriligator. New York: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  19. Hashimoto, M. 1981. “Firm-Specific Human Capital as a Shared Investment.” American Economic Review 71:475–82.Google Scholar
  20. Hsiao, C. 1986. Analysis of Panel Data. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, G. and G. Solon. 1986. “Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy.” American Economic Review 76: 1117–25.Google Scholar
  22. Jones, F.L. and J. Kelley. 1984. “Decomposing Differences between Groups: A Cautionary Note on Measuring Discrimination.” Sociological Methods and Research 12:323–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kilbourne, B.S., P. England, and K. Beron. 1994. “Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender.” Social Forces 72:1149–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kilbourne, B.S., P. England, G. Farkas, K. Beron, and D. Weir. 1994. “Returns to Skills, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of Women and Men.” American Journal of Sociology 100:689–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuhn, P. 1993. “Demographic Groups and Personnel Policy.” Labour Economics 1:49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Macpherson, D.A. and B.T. Hirsch. 1995. “Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women’s Jobs Pay Less?” Journal of Labor Economics 13:426–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orazem, P.F. and P. Matilla. 1989. “Comparable Worth and the Structure of Earnings: The Iowa Case.” Pp. 179–99 in Pay Equity: Empirical Inquiries, edited by R. Michael, H. Hartmann, and B. O’Farrell. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  28. Parcel, T. 1989. “Comparable Worth, Occupational Labor Markets, and Occupational Earnings: Results from the 1980 Census.” Pp. 134–52 in Pay Equity: Empirical Inquiries, edited by R. Michael, H. Hartmann and B. O’Farrell. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  29. Petersen, T. 1993. “Recent Advances in Longitudinal Methodology.” Annual Review of Sociology 19:425–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Petersen, T. and L.A. Morgan. 1995. “Separate and Unequal: Occupation-Establishment Sex Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap.” American Journal of Sociology 101:329–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Polachek, S. 1979. “Occupational Self Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure.” Review of Economics and Statistics 58:60–69.Google Scholar
  32. Remick, H., ed. 1984. Comparable Worth and Wage Discrimination. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Roos, P. and J. Price. 1981. Fourth Edition Dictionary of Occupa-tional Titles Scores for 1970 Census Categories. [MRDF.] Washington, DC: Committee on Occupational Classification and Analysis, National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  34. Rosenbaum, J.E. 1980. “Hierarchical and Individual Effects on Earnings.” Industrial Relations 19:1–14.Google Scholar
  35. Rosenfeld, R.A. and F. Nielsen. 1984. “Inequality and Careers: A Dynamic Model of Socioeconomic Achievement.” Sociological Methods and Research 12:279–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rothchild, N. 1984. “Overview of Pay Initiatives, 1974-1984.” Pp. 119–28 in Comparable Worth: Issues for the 80’s, edited by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  37. Sorensen, E. 1989. “The Wage Effects of Occupational Sex Composition: A Review and New Findings.” Pp. 57–79 in Comparable Worth: Analyses and Evidence, edited by M.A. Hill and M. Killingsworth. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.Google Scholar
  38. Steinberg, R.J., L. Haignere, C. Possin, C.H. Chertos, and D. Trieman. 1986. The New York State Pay Equity Study: A Research Report. Albany: Center for Women in Government, SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  39. Tomaskovic-Devey, D. 1993. Gender and Racial Inequality at Work. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.Google Scholar
  40. U.S. Department of Labor. 1977. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  41. Zellner, H. 1975. “The Determinants of Occupational Segregation.” Pp. 125–45 in Sex, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula England
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lori L. Reid
    • 2
  • Barbara Stanek Kilbourne
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of ArizonaTucson
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of ArizonaUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyVanderbilt UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations