Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 357–374 | Cite as

Economic opportunity in mexico and return migration from the United States

  • David P. Lindstrom
Migration

Abstract

I analyze the influence of the economic characteristics of origin area on trip duration for Mexican migrants in the United States. I argue that migrants from economically dynamic areas in Mexico with favorable opportunities for employment and small capital investment have a larger incentive to stay in the United States longer and to withstand the psychic costs of separation from family and friends than do migrants from economically stagnant areas in Mexico, where the productive uses of savings are severely limited. In line with this argument we should expect investment opportunities in migrants’ origin areas to be associated positively with migrants’ trip duration in the United States. To test this hypothesis I use individual- and household-level data on U.S migration experience collected in 13 Mexican communities. Evidence from parametric hazards models supports the idea that economic characteristics of origin areas influence the motivations and strategies of Mexican migrants in the United States.

Keywords

Household Head Unobserved Heterogeneity Return Migration Migration Experience Gompertz Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alarcón, R. 1992. “Nortefiización: Self-Perpetuating Migration from a Mexican Town.” Pp. 302–18 in U.S.-Mexico Relations: Labor Market Interdependence, edited by J.A. Bustamante, R. Hinojosa, and C. Reynolds. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aragonés, A.M. and I.M. Candia. 1990. Planes de Desarrollo y Politica Demografica en México. México, DF: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Google Scholar
  3. Arias, P. 1992. Nueva Rusticidad Mexicana. Mexico, DF: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes.Google Scholar
  4. Arizpe, L. 1981. “The Rural Exodus in Mexico and Mexican Migration to the United States.” International Migration Review 15:626–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arizpe, L. and J. Aranda. 1981. “The ‘Comparative Advantages’ of Women’s Disadvantages: Women Workers in the Strawberry Export Agribusiness in Mexico.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 7:453–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arroyo-Alejandre, J., A. de León-Arias, and B. Valenzuela-Varela. 1991. “Patterns of Migration and Regional Development in the State of Jalisco, Mexico.” Pp. 49–87 in Region and Sectoral Development as Alternatives to Migration, edited by S. Diaz-Briquets and S. Weintraub. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  7. Bean, F.D., B. Edmonston, and J.S. Passel, eds. 1990. Undocumented Migration to the United States: IRCA and the Experience of the 1980s. Santa Monica/Washington, DC: RAND Corporation/ Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  8. Bean, P.D., E.E. Telles, and B.L. Lowell. 1987. “Undocumented Migration to the United States: Perceptions and Evidence.” Population and Development Review 13:671–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bednarzik, R.W. 1975. “Involuntary Part-Time Work: A Cyclical Analysis.” Monthly Labor Review 98(9): 12–18.Google Scholar
  10. Berg, E.J. 1961. “Backward-Sloping Labor Supply Functions in Dual Economies: The Africa Case.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 75:468–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Byerlee, D. 1974. “Rural-Urban Migration in Africa: Theory, Policy and Research Implications.” International Migration Review 8:543–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiswick, B.R. 1986. “Mexican Immigrants: The Economic Dimension.” Annals of the American Academy 487:92–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornelius, W.A. 1976. “Outrnigration from Rural Mexican Communities.” Interdisciplinary Communications Program Occasional Monograph Series 5(2): 1–40. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  14. — 1991. “Labor Migration to the United States: Development Outcomes and Alternatives in Mexican Sending Communities.” Pp. 91–131 in Region and Sectoral Development as Alternatives to Migration, edited by S. Diaz-Briquets and S. Weintraub. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  15. — 1992. “From Sojourners to Settlers: The Changing Profile of Mexican Immigration to the United States” Pp. 155–95 in U.S.-Mexico Relations: Labor Market Interdependence, edited by J.A. Bustamante, R. Hinojosa, and C. Reynolds. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Dinerrnan, I.R. 1982. Migrants and Stay-at-Homes: A Comparative Study of Rural Migration from Michoacán, Mexico. La Jolla: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California at San Diego.Google Scholar
  17. Durand, J. 1988. “Los Migradolares: Cien Años de Inversion en el Medio Rural.” Argumentos: Estudios Criticos de la Sociedad 5:7–21.Google Scholar
  18. Durand, J. and D.S. Massey. 1992. “Mexican Migration to the United States: A Critical Review.” Latin American Research Review 27(2):3–42.Google Scholar
  19. Escobar, A., M. González, and B. Roberts. 1987. “Migration, Labour Markets, and the International Economy: Jalisco, Mexico, and the United States.” Pp. 42–64 in Migrants, Workers, and the Social Order, edited by J. Eades. London: Association of Social Anthropologists.Google Scholar
  20. Escobar-Latapi, A. and M. de la O. Martinez-Castellanos. 1991. “Small-Scale Industry and International Migration in Guadalajara.” Pp. 135–73 in Migration, Remittances, and Small Business Development: Mexico and Caribbean Basin Countries, edited by S. Diaz-Briquets and S. Weintraub. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, J.S. and D.D. James. 1979. “Conditions of Employment and Income Distribution in Mexico as Incentives for Mexican Migration to the United States: Prospects to the End of the Century.” International Migration Review 13:4–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flinn, C.J. and J.J. Heckman. 1982. “New Methods for Analyzing Individual Event Histories.” Pp. 99–140 in Sociological Methodology 1982, edited by S. Leinhardt. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  23. Freeman, R. 1982. “Economic Determinants of Geographic and Individual Variation in the Labor Market Position of Young Persons.” Pp. 115–54 in The Youth Labor Market Problem: Its Nature, Causes, and Consequences, edited by R.B. Freeman and D.A. Wise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Garber, P.M. and S.R. Weisbrod. 1993. “Opening the Financial Services Market in Mexico.” Pp. 279-310 in The Mexico-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, edited by P.M. Garber. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Goldring, L. 1990. “Development and Migration: A Comparative Analysis of Two Mexican Migrant Circuits.” Working Paper 37, Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development. Washington, DC: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development.Google Scholar
  26. González-Montes, S. 1994. “Intergenerational and Gender Relations in the Transition from a Peasant Economy to a Diversified Economy.” Pp. 175–91 in Women of the Mexican Countryside, 1850–1990, edited by H. Fowler-Salamini and M.K. Vaughan. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  27. Greenwood, M.J. 1978. “An Econometric Model of Internal Migration and Regional Economic Growth in Mexico.” Journal of Regional Science 18(1):17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greeenwood, M.J., l.R. Ladman, and B.S. Siegel. 1981. “LongTerm Trends in Migratory Behavior in a Developing Country: The Case of Mexico.” Demography 18:369–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grindle, M.S. 1988. Searching for Rural Development: Labor Migration and Employment in Mexico. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Guendelman, S. and A. Perez-Itriago. 1987. “Migration Tradeoffs: Men’s Experiences with Seasonal Lifestyles.” International Migration Review 21:709–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hayes, D. 1995. “Mexico’s Savings Problem.” Voices of Mexico: Mexican Perspectives on Contemporary Issues 30:26–28.Google Scholar
  32. Heckman, J.J. and B. Singer. 1982. “Population Heterogeneity in Demographic Models.” Pp. 567–99 in Multidimensional Mathematical Demography, edited by K.C. Land and A. Rogers. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. — 1984. “A Method for Minimizing the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Models for Duration Data.” Econometrica 52:271–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heckman, J.J. and J.R. Walker. 1987. “Using Goodness of Fit and Other Criteria to Choose among Competing Duration Models: A Case Study of Hutterite Data.” Pp. 247–307 in Sociological Methodology 1987, edited by C.C. Clogg. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.Google Scholar
  35. Hill, JK. 1987. “Immigrant Decisions Concerning Duration of Stay and Migratory Frequency.” Journal of Development Economics 25:221–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jenkins, J.C. 1977. “Push/Pull in Recent Mexican Migration to the U.S.” International Migration Review 11:178–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, R.C. 1982a. “Undocumented Migration from Mexico: Some Geographical Questions.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 72:77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. — 1982b. “Channelization of Undocumented Mexican Migrants to the U.S.” Economic Geography 58: 156–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kalton, G. and D.W. Anderson. 1986. “Sampling Rare Populations.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 149:65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. King, J. 1978. “Interstate Migration in Mexico” Economic Development and Cultural Change 27(1):83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lowell, L.B. 1992. “Circular Mobility, Migrant Communities, and Policy Restrictions: Unauthorized Flows from Mexico.” Pp. 137–57 in Migration, Population Structure, and Redistribution Policies, edited by C. Goldscheider. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  42. Lustig, N. and T. Rendon. 1979. “Female Employment, Occupational Status, and Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Family in Mexico.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5(1): 143–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Massey, D.S., R. Alarcón, J. Durand, and H. Gonzalez. 1987. Return to Aztlan: The Social Process of international Migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  44. Massey, D.S., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, A. Pellegrino, J.E. Taylor. 1993. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review 19:431–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. — 1994. “An Evaluation of International Migration Theory: The North American Case.” Population and Development Review 20:699–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Massey, D.S., L. Goldring, and J. Durand. 1994. “Continuities in Transnational Migration: An Analysis of Nineteen Mexican Communities.” American Journal of Sociology 99:1492–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mincer, J. 1976. “Unemployment Effects of Minimum Wages.” Journal of Political Economy 84(4):S87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mines, R. 1981. Developing a Community Tradition of Migration: A Field Study in Rural Zacatecas, Mexico, and California Settlement Areas. La Jolla: Program in United States-Mexican Studies, University of California at San Diego.Google Scholar
  49. Mines, R. and A. de Janvry. 1982. “Migration to the United States and Mexican Rural Development: A Case Study.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 64:444–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mines, R. and D.S. Massey. 1985. “Patterns of Migration to the United States from Two Mexican Communities.” Latin American Research Review 20: 104–23.Google Scholar
  51. Ojeda de la Peña, N. 1989. EI Curso de Vida Familiar de las Mujeres Mexicanas; Un Análisis Sociodemográfico, Cuernavaca, Morelos: Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Google Scholar
  52. Orozco, J.L. 1992. EI Negocio de los I/egales: Ganancias para Quién, Guadalajara, Mexico: Institute Tecnol6gico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente.Google Scholar
  53. Pedrero-Nieto, M. 1990. “Evolución de la Participación Económica Femenina en los Ochenta.” Revista Mexicana de Sociologla 52(1): 133–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pick, J.B. and E.W. Butler. 1994. The Mexico Handbook: Economic and Demographic Maps and Statistics. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  55. Pick, J.B., E.W. Butler, and R.G. Ramirez. 1993. “Projection of the Mexican National Labor Force, 1980–2005.” Social Biology 40(3–4):161–90.Google Scholar
  56. Piore, M.J. 1979. Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor and Industrial Societies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Portes, A. and R.L. Bach. 1985. Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  58. Raftery, A.E. 1986. “A Note on Bayes Factors for Log-Linear Contingency Table Methods with Vague Prior Information.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 48:249–50.Google Scholar
  59. Ranney, S. and S. Kossoudji. 1983. “Profiles of Temporary Mexican Labor Migrants to the United States.” Population and Development Review 9:475–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reichert, J. and D.S. Massey. 1979. “Patterns of U.S. Migration from a Mexican Sending Community: A Comparison of Legal and Illegal Migrants.” International Migration Review 13:599–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. — 1980. “History and Trends in U.S.-Bound Migration from a Mexican Town.” International Migration Review 14:475–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rionda-Ramírez, L.M. 1992. Y Jalaron pa’l Norte...Migración, Agrarismo y Agricultura en un Pueblo Michoacano: Copándaro de Jimenéz. Mexico, DF: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, EI Colegio de Michoacán,Google Scholar
  63. Sahay, R. and C.A. Vegh. 1995. “Dollarization in Transition Economies.” Finance and Development 32(7):36–39.Google Scholar
  64. Silvers, A.L. and P. Crosson. 1983. “Urban-Bound Migration and Rural Investment: The Case of Mexico.” Journal of Regional Science 23(1):33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Somoza, J.L. 1981. “Indirect Estimates of Emigration: Applications of Two Procedures Using Information on Residence of Children and Siblings.” Pp. 35–60 in Indirect Procedures for Estimating Emigration, edited by Working Group on the Methodology for the Study of International Migration. Liége, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.Google Scholar
  66. Stark, O. 1991. The Migration of Labor. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  67. Stern, C. 1967. “Un Análisis Regional de México.” Demografia y Economía 1(1):92–117.Google Scholar
  68. Taylor, J.E. 1987. “Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migration and the Returns to Households in Rural Mexico.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 69:626–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tienda, M. 1975. “Diferencias Socioeconómicas Regionales y Tasas de Participación de la Fuerza de Trabajo Femenina: El Caso de México.” Revista Mexicana de Sociologia 37:911–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trigueros, P. and J. Rodríguez-Piña. 1988. “Migracion y Vida Familiar en Michoacán.” Pp. 201–21 in Migración en el Occidente de México, edited by G. Lopez-Castro. Zamora, Mexico: El Colegio de Michoacán.Google Scholar
  71. Trussell, J. and T. Richards. 1985. “Correcting for Unmeasured Heterogeneity in Hazard Models Using the Heckman-Singer Procedure.” Pp. 242–76 in Sociological Methodology, 1985, edited by N.B. Tuma. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  72. Uribe-Castañeda, M. and A. Caso-Raphael. 1979. “Procesos Migratorios Interestatales: El Caso de Mexico.” Demografia y Economía 13(2):224–33.Google Scholar
  73. Vernez, G. and D. Ronfeldt. 1991. “The Current Situation in Mexican Immigration.” Science 251: 1189–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vogel, R.C. and P. Burkett. 1986. “Deposit Mobilization in Developing Countries: The Importance of Reciprocity in Lending.” Journal of Developing Areas 20:425–38.Google Scholar
  75. White, M.J., F.D. Bean, and TJ. Espenshade. 1990. “The U.S. 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and Undocumented Migration to the United States.” Population Research and Policy Review 9:93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wiest, R.E. 1973. “Wage-Labor Migration and the Household in a Mexican Town.” Journal of Anthropological Research 29:180–209.Google Scholar
  77. Wise, L.R. 1989. Labor Market Policies and Employment Patterns in the United States. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  78. Yamaguchi, K. 1991. Event History Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  79. — 1992. “Accelerated Failure-Time Regression Models with a Regression Model of Surviving Fraction: An Application to the Analysis of ‘Permanent Employment’ in Japan.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 87(418):284–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yamaguchi, K. and L.R. Ferguson. 1992. “The Occurrence and Timing of Third Child Birth and Their Life-History Predictors: An Analysis Based on Accelerated Failure-Time Regression Models with a Regression Model of Surviving Fraction.” Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series (PRC-92-8), University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  81. Zaba, B. 1986. Measurement of Emigration Using Indirect Techniques. Liège, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Population Studies and Training CenterBrown UniversityProvidence

Personalised recommendations