Five decades of missing females in China
- 290 Downloads
This paper seeks to explain the dearth of females in the population of China in cohorts born from the late 1930s to the present. We demonstrate that in virtually all cohorts. the shortage of females in comparison with males is revealed when the cohort is first enumerated in a census. Subsequently it barely changes, an indication that female losses occur very early in life. Using the high-quality data from the censuses and fertility surveys in China, we show that many of the births of the girls missing in the censuses were not reported in the surveys because they died very young. The incidence of excess early female mortality (probably infanticide) declined precipitously in the Communist period, but not to zero. The recent escalation in the proportion of young females missing in China has been caused largely by rapidly escalating sex-selective abortion.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Coale, A.J. 1984. “Rapid Population Change in China, 1952–1982.” Report No. 27, National Research Council, Committee on Population and Demography.Google Scholar
- Coale, A.J. 1993. “Mortality Schedules in China Derived from Data in the 1982 and 1990 Censuses.” Working Paper 93-7, Office of Population Research.Google Scholar
- Coale, A.J. and P. Demeny. 1983. Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations. 2nd Ed., New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Japan. Ministry of Health and Welfare. 1991. Vital Statistics of Japan, 1991. Vol. 1. Tokyo: Statistics and Information Department.Google Scholar
- Republic of Korea. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 1988. Recent Changes in Vital Statistics and New Population Projection. Seoul: National Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Shim, Y.H., S.M. Park, H.S. Kim, and W.S. Pack. 1991. An Empirical Study on Abortion in Korea (in Korean with English abstract). Seoul: Korean Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
- State Family Planning Commission of China (SFPC). 1990. Data of China Fertility and Contraception Survey (Whole Country) (in Chinese). Beijing: China Population Press.Google Scholar
- State Statistical Bureau of China (SSB). 1991. 10 Percent Sampling Tabulation on the 1990 Population Census of the People’s Republic of China (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistical Press.Google Scholar
- Teitelbaum, M.S., N. Mantel, and C.R. Stark. 1971. “Limited Dependence of the Human Sex Ratio on Birth Order.” American Journal of Human Genetics 23(3):271–280.Google Scholar
- Wolf, A.P. and C. Huang. 1980. Marriages and Adoption in China, 1845–1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Yi, Z., P. Tu, B. Gu, Y. Xu, B. Li, and Y. Li. 1992. “An Analysis of the Causes and Implications of the Recent Increase in the Sex Ratio at Birth in China.” Presented at the International Seminar on China’s 1990 Population Census, Beijing.Google Scholar