Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 577–598 | Cite as

Job, family, and gender: Determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991

  • Harriet B. Presser
Economic Demography

Abstract

This study provides the most recent national estimates of the prevalence of employment during nonstandard hours (evenings, nights, or rotating hours) and on weekends. It also examines in a multivariate context the relevance of job and family characteristics as determinants of such employment, separately for men and for women. The findings support the contention that the demand for employment during nonstandard hours and weekends is pervasive throughout the occupational hierarchy, but particularly in service occupations and in personal service industries and for both men and .women. Gender differences exist, however, in the relevance of family factors. Being married reduces women’s but not men’s likelihood of employment during nonstandard hours, and the presence of children affects women’s but not men’s hours and days of employment. (The direction of the effect for women depends on the children’s age.) Implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords

Child Care Shift Work Current Population Survey Work Schedule Child Care Cost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bielby, W.T. and D.D. Bielby. 1989. “Family Ties: Balancing Commitments to Work and Family in Dual-Earner Households.” American Sociological Review 54:776–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cox, A. 1993. “The Effects of Occupation and Family Structure on Employment Schedules: A Focus on Single Mothers.” M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
  3. Duncan, R.P. and C. Cummings Perucci. 1976. “Dual Occupation Families and Migration.” American Sociological Review 41:252–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. 1981. “Official Statistics on Working Time: Methodological Problems and Delimitations of Comparability.” Unpublished report, Dublin.Google Scholar
  5. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. 1992. First European Survey on the Work Environment. Dublin.Google Scholar
  6. Galinsky, E., L.T. Bond, and D.E. Friedman. 1993. The Changing Workforce: Highlights of the National Study. New York: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Hinrichs, K. 1991. “Working-Time Development in West Germany: Departure to a New Stage,” Pp. 27–59 in Working Time in Transition: The Political Economy of Working Hours in Industrialized Nations, edited by K. Hinrichs, W. Roche and C. Sirianni. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Hinrichs, K., W. Roche and C. Sirianni, eds. 1991. Working Time in Transition: The Political Economy of Working Hours in Industrialized Nations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  9. King, S.L. and H.B. Williams. 1985. “Shift Work Differentials and Practices in Manufacturing.” Monthly Labor Review 108:26–33.Google Scholar
  10. Mellor, E.F. 1986. “Shift Work and Flexitime: How Prevalent Are They?” Monthly Labor Review 109:14–21.Google Scholar
  11. Mott, P.E., F.C. Mann, Q. McLoughlin, and D.P. Warwick. 1965. Shift Work: The Social, Psychological, and Physical Consequences. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  12. O’Connell, M. 1993. “Where’s Papa? Fathers’ Role in Child Care.” Population Trends and Public Policy 20(Sept.): 1–20.Google Scholar
  13. Presser, H.B. 1984. “Job Characteristics of Spouses and Their Work Shifts.” Demography 21:575–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. —. 1987. “Work Shifts of Full-Time Dual-Earner Couples: Patterns and Contrasts by Sex of Spouse.” Demography 34:99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. —. 1988. “Shift Work and Child Care Among Young Dual-Earner American Parents,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 50:133–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. —. 1989. “Can We Make Time for Children? The Economy, Work Schedules, and Child Care.” Demography 26:523–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. —. 1994. “Employment Schedules Among Dual-Earner Spouses and the Division of Household Labor by Gender.” American Sociological Review 59:348–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Presser, H.B. and V.S. Cain. 1983. “Shift Work Among Dual-Earner Couples with Children.” Science 219(18 February):876–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reskin, B.F. and P.A. Roos. 1990. Job Queues, Gender Queues. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Silvestri, G. 1993. “Occupational Employment: Wide Variations in Growth,” Monthly Labor Review 116:58–86.Google Scholar
  21. Singlemann, J. and M. Tienda. 1985. “The Process of Occupational Change in a Service Society: The Case of the United States, 1960–80.” Pp, 48–67 in New Approaches to Economic Life, edited by B. Roberts, R. Finnegan, and D. Gallie. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, S.L. 1986. “The Growing Diversity of Work Schedules.” Monthly Labor Review 109:7–13.Google Scholar
  23. Spalter-Roth, R. and H. Hartmann. 1992. “Women in Telecommunications: Exception to the Rule of Low Pay for Women’s Work.” Unpublished manuscript, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  24. Staines, G.L. and J.H. Pleck. 1993. The Impact of Work Schedules on the Family. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  25. U.S. Congress. 1991. Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker. Office of Technology Assessment, OTA-BA-463. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Labor. 1992. “Workers on Flexible and Shift Schedules.” News, August 14, USDL 92-491.Google Scholar
  26. “Winkel mag van Wijers 75 uur open zijn.” 1994. de Volkskrant (Amsterdam) October 5, p.1.Google Scholar
  27. White, L. and B. Keith. 1990. “The Effect of Shift Work on the Quality and Stability of Marital Relations.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 52:453–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harriet B. Presser
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center on PopulationGender
  2. 2.Social Inequality Department of SociologyUniversity of Maryland College ParkCollege Park

Personalised recommendations